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題名:慾望之河--唐代情、義邊界的建構和逾越     (42點)
In the Realm of Desire: The Construction and Transgression of the Boundary Between Affection & Allegiance During the T'ang Dynasty
著者:盧建榮(Chien-Lung Lu)
學科:歷史 ; 民族
關鍵字:文本 ; 論述 ; 場域 ; 代現 ; (公)義論述 ; 情(慾)論述 ; text ; discourse ; field ; representation ; allegiance ; affection
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

由國家所宣導的女性終身一次婚制意識形態,透過歷史文本製作、以及行政命令下達,不可謂宣揚不力。然社會依舊充斥著婚前性行為、婚外情、以及因離婚或守寡之後再嫁等等背離國家政策、或傳統禮教之情事。這樣意識形態和社會實情的背離,反映的是情感個人主義勝過父權體制的社會風尚。在這樣風尚之下,性開放乃為不可抵擋的潮流。但同時,父權體制仍舊支配著許多家庭的生活步調。亦即,唐代是個情感個人主義和父權體制同時共存、又相激相盪的社會。 唐代人際之間情義的相合和乖違,是相當複雜的。各種不同的史料文本各自展示了複雜性的一、二層面。先從法律面說起。就夫妻關係而言,有允許情感個人主義發展的餘地,但亦有強調家族主義,亦即父權體制的那一面。易言之,兩股拉力同時存在,拉扯不已。 次就正史記錄文本看來,偏男性主導的性別意識固然存在,抑且國家透過國史文本製作、仍在宣揚唯女性貞節觀。但是由女子個人、或本家所發動的離婚行動,也不是沒有。而女子婚後紅杏出牆的例證,亦史不絕書。這裡面,女性身體的操控權,究握在誰手?是女性自己、抑男性、或其集體意識所會聚的國家?恐怕還存有爭議。 再就小說文本來說,情慾論述在此蔚為大觀,且大行其道。這裡是情感個人主義壓倒父權體制的場域所在。一本本的小說炮製的無非是才子佳人、男歡女愛的情慾橫流世界。那麼多的羅曼史,到底只是出於文人的虛構和想像呢?還是一如一向學者的持說:是真實世界的反映?我認為,既有真實世界的鏡像,又有人為的情慾論述建構,存乎其中。 基於以上認識,我又考察了(1)社會警世詩(2)以小說體包裝的真情告白散文(3)民間歷史等三種文類,用以推敲情慾世界真實和虛構的分際。 最後,我回到遺物史料和時人觀察的意見,來省視唐代繁複多端的情義問題。
During the T'ang dynasty, the ideological prescription that women marry only once in their lifetime was vigorously proclaimed through administrative injunctions. There existed, nevertheless, many tendencies contrary to state policy and traditional mores; thus, premarital sex, extramarital affairs, and remarriages after divorce or widowhood were still prevalent in the society. The polarization of ideology and social reality was indicative of a social trend in which affective individualism was gaining ascendancy over patriarchal authority. Sexual openness was a unpreventable trend given the shifting mood. In the meantime, patriarchal authority had yet to relinquish its supremacy over the goings-on of many households. The society of the T'ang dynasty, in other words, was permeated simultaneously by affective individualism and patriarchal authority, both exerting their influences in a reciprocative manner. The two modes of interpersonal relationships discussed in this paper will be referred to as affection and allegiance. Their mutual adjustment and repulsion presented a quite complicated pattern, only one or two aspects of which can be noticed in the various historical documents. I will start with the legal domain. Affective individualism with regard to the relationship between spouses was allowed to flourish, but the law also put an emphasis on the interests of familism, i. e, those of the patriarchal authority. Two coexisting forces were thus vying for dominance. Next, I will focus on the offical historical compilations, whose texts were still imbued with male-dominated discriminatory sexual attitudes and whose prodution was carried out by the state as a means of promoting the ideal of female chastity. Yet, cases of adultery committed by married women were abundantly cited in all the documents. The question thus presents itself: under such circumstances, who was in control of the female body? Was it the woman herself, the male, or the state acting as a representation of the collective consciousness? This surely is an issue begging for illumination. I will also examine some texts of fiction, an area in which the discourse on sexual desire was especially rife and diverse. This was the discursive field where affective individualism came to overwhelm patriarchal authority; many works of fiction depicted a lustful world with cultivated ladies and gentlemen in ardent pursuit of venereal pleasure. Were these many romances only the figments of the literati's imagination? Or, as has been maintained by scholars, were they a reflection of the real world? I will claim that they contained both a mirror-image of social reality and an invented discursive construction of sexuality. Based on the above observations, I will move on to investigate the following textual genres: (1) admonitory poetry; (2) truthful confessions conveyed in the form of a novel; and (3) unofficial folk history. In doing this I hope to locate the dividing line between the real and the fictional in the realm of sexual desire. Finally, I will return to other historical documents and contemporary documents to deal with the complicated issue of affection vs. allegiance during the T'ang dynasty.


欲掩彌彰:中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」--公義篇 1期 (2003.9)
征服情海:試掘一口情慾的老井/ 盧建榮
地域與國法-南宋「女子分法」與江南民間慣習關係再考/ 青木敦;譯:陳進盛;譯:鍾淑敏
晉南北朝時代的鄉里之情/ 劉增貴
市井與圍城-南朝建康宮廷文化之一側面/ 鄭毓瑜
胡適、吳宓和愛情-兼論私情與公論/ 汪榮祖
男性與自我的扮相:胡適的愛情、軀體與隱私觀/ 江勇振
Conflicting Emotions: Aspects of the Personal and Public in the Late Qing/ Peter Zarrow
Revealing to Conceal: Love-letters and Privacy in Republican China/ Bonnie S. McDougall
Sentiments and Interests in Marriage Ceremonies in the Late Qing Period/ Mechthild Leutner
兒女情短、英雄氣長:辛亥革命時期的性別與革命/ 呂芳上
慾望之河--唐代情、義邊界的建構和逾越/ 盧建榮
情之景-宋代山水畫中的浪漫情思/ 包華石
情義難決:從近代中國的兩性關係說起/ 呂芳上
依違於私情與公義之間-孟姜女故事流轉探析/ 劉靜貞

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