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題名:Conflicting Emotions: Aspects of the Personal and Public in the Late Qing     (104點)
「矛盾情結」-晚清時期「公與私」的面面觀
著者:Peter Zarrow(沙培德)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:歷史 ; 民族
關鍵字:公與私 ; 情結矛盾 ; 康有為 ; 梁啟超 ; 宋教仁 ; public and private ; emotional conflict ; Kang Youwei ; Liang Qichao ; Song Jiaoren
刊名:欲掩彌彰:中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」--公義篇
卷期:1期(2003.9)
頁碼:227-278
語言:英語
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

晚清時期的獨特局勢乃在「公」「私」之間引發了新的衝突。「忠」與「孝」的價值觀受到了質疑,但這篇文章的焦點並不在於意識形態與政治哲學之上,而反是在於這些衝突當中所涉及到之無意識或者幾近有意識之矛盾感受的情感糾結。當專事於研究康有為(1858-1927~梁啟超(1873-1929)和宋教仁(1882-1913)等人的私人寫作時,對於政治活躍人士之政治目標可能會和其私人生活之價值觀念的基準相違背之一事,就變得明顯易見了。這是無法以「理性v.s.情感」來作一分為二的劃分,而反是「公」與「私」均顯示出其所同時具有之理性與情感的一面。以國家與家庭為並行之層級架構的觀念,便在傳統底下的宇宙論理中被表白得很清楚。這篇文章的一個面向,就是檢視了皇帝其作為崇奉對象之所涵蓋的範圍程度。眾所周知,對帝制的態度已開始在改變;然而,家庭與友誼的觀念,其變遷則較為遲緩。可是,一旦變遷的過程開始了,就很難阻止。傳統宇宙論的銷蝕崩解,終究還是影響到對家庭的態度。甚至在這態度出現變化之前,政治行動的邏輯便已加重了晚清時期所面對的這波「價值觀上的苦難」。 或許更有可能的是,國家與家庭之間的連繫關係早在清末以前就已斷喪,並因而為這關係的兩方創作出一個新的重新思考的空間。在康有為自我的披露下,他在道德上所面臨的主要問題便是:他在使自己陷於政治危難的同時,也使得他的家庭,特別是他的母親,陷於危局之中。最後他乃將這個問題交由命運來解決。在梁啟超的案例中,顯然是,他面對了一種介於政治行動上的需求與其對遊學生涯和友誼的渴望等之間的衝突矛盾。在面對他本身的問題時,他訴諸於道德自我修正的良方來解決。而宋教仁亦是如此。宋氏受到來自家庭的直接壓力,要他放棄會使得他感到未能盡孝的政治活動。雖說如此,他的最高忠誠還是留在漢民族的身上(類似於康有為之對光緒皇帝的忠心不二)。部份的這些壓力可能就是導致了宋教仁於1906年在日本達到崩潰地步的來源。在這三位人物內心世界的細節中-就以我們所能夠取得並對他們內心世界作合理推斷的這部份屬於研究方法上所面臨之困難問題的範圖裡-我們可以闡釋出他們在公眾生活中所掩藏的一角。我們同樣也可以見識到介於「公與私」、「國家與家庭」、「理性與情感」、甚至於「說話與靜默」等等之間的某些互相作用。他們的自我寫作乃同時是一項自我表露和一項演出,而這演出除了在於掩藏也做了表露,而卻總會解決了從孩提時代開始和就某方面來說從過去的幾世紀以來就已「內心化」之對立價值觀其彼此之間的緊張和衝突。
The unique conditions of the lat e Qing created new tensions between personal and public values. The values of "loyalty" (zhong) and "filial piety" (xiao) came under question, but the focus of this article is not on ideology or political philosophy but rather the emotional implications of such tens ions, experienced as unconscious or barely conscious conflicts. Focusing on the se lf-writings of Kang Youwei (1858-1927), Liang Qichao (1873-1929), and Song Jiaoren (1882-1913), it becomes apparent that their activist political goals could be incompatible with the norms of personal life. This cannot be dichotomized as the rational versus the emotional, but rather both public and private display both emotional and rational aspects. The notion of the parallel hierarchical structures of stat e and family was made explicit in the traditional cosmology. One aspect of this paper examines the extent to which the emperor remained an object of respect and reverence. As is well known, attitudes about the imperial system began to change; however, ideas about family and friendship were slower to change. Still, once the process of change was begun, it was difficult to stop. The dissolution of the traditional cosmology eventually affected attitudes toward the family. Even before that point, the logic of political activism intensified the "values-anguish" faced in the late Qing. It may well be that the ties between family and state were already breaking down before the late Qing, creating a new space for rethinking both realms. In Kang Youwei's self-presentation, his main moral problem was that by putting himself in political danger, he was also putting his family, particularly his mother, in danger. In the end he trusted to fate to resolve this problem. In Liang Qichao case, it is evident he faced a conflict between the demands of political activism and a desire for a life of scholarly leisure and friendship. Facing up to his own problems, he prescribed a course of moral self-improvements. So, too, did Song Jiaoren. Song faced direct family pressures to abandon his political activities that caused him to feel unfilial. Nonetheless, his highest loyalty remained to the Han people (parallel to Kang Youwei's loyalty to the Guangxu Emperor). Some of these tensions may have led to Song's breakdown in Japan in 1906. In the details of the inner lives of these three men - insofar as we can access and make reasonable inferences about their inner lives, which are partly methodological problems- we can illuminate the obscured corners of their public lives as well. We can also see something of the interplay between public and private, family and state, rationality and emotion, and even speech and silence. Their self-writings are both revealing and a performance that hides as well as reveals but always works out the tensions and conflicts of competing values that had been internalized in childhood and, in a sense, over the centuries.


    

本卷期目次
欲掩彌彰:中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」--公義篇 1期 (2003.9)
征服情海:試掘一口情慾的老井/ 盧建榮
地域與國法-南宋「女子分法」與江南民間慣習關係再考/ 青木敦;譯:陳進盛;譯:鍾淑敏
晉南北朝時代的鄉里之情/ 劉增貴
市井與圍城-南朝建康宮廷文化之一側面/ 鄭毓瑜
胡適、吳宓和愛情-兼論私情與公論/ 汪榮祖
男性與自我的扮相:胡適的愛情、軀體與隱私觀/ 江勇振
Conflicting Emotions: Aspects of the Personal and Public in the Late Qing/ Peter Zarrow
Revealing to Conceal: Love-letters and Privacy in Republican China/ Bonnie S. McDougall
Sentiments and Interests in Marriage Ceremonies in the Late Qing Period/ Mechthild Leutner
兒女情短、英雄氣長:辛亥革命時期的性別與革命/ 呂芳上
慾望之河--唐代情、義邊界的建構和逾越/ 盧建榮
情之景-宋代山水畫中的浪漫情思/ 包華石
情義難決:從近代中國的兩性關係說起/ 呂芳上
依違於私情與公義之間-孟姜女故事流轉探析/ 劉靜貞
 
   
 
   

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