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題名:Revealing to Conceal: Love-letters and Privacy in Republican China     (136點)
欲彰彌掩:民國初年文人的情書與隱私觀念
著者:Bonnie S. McDougall(杜博妮)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:歷史 ; 民族
關鍵字:Privacy ; Letter-writing ; Love letters ; Epistolary fiction ; Republican Chinese literature
刊名:欲掩彌彰:中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」--公義篇
卷期:1期(2003.9)
頁碼:279-346
語言:英語
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

書信(尤其是情書)能夠向特定的或廣泛的讀者,透露私人的想法或情感,但無論古今中西,書信真假與公私之間的界限,一向糢糊不清,難以台辨。虛擬成分居多的情書,自唐代以來常出現在中國小說與戲劇之中,作為舖陳故事情節、投射人物的個性,使得敘述與對話更為豐富的手段,並且在20世紀初作品中,亦時而加強故事真實性與抒情性,使其彰顯私人隱密性。相對的,真實的情書,除罕見的例子外,在中國極少有人印成書本發行。 民國初年的書信文學,雖或多或少受到歐洲作品(如歌德的《少年維特的煩惱》)的廠發,但亦有其獨到之處。此種自傳性質強烈的文學,多由年輕女子寫給年輕女子看,所探討的主題包括女人之間的情誼、對生命的反省、選自己丈夫的決心、以及自由婚姻之後的夢想破裂等問題。從1920年代至1930年代初期,北京女子師範大學成為書信文學的發源地,該所的學生如黃廬隱、石評梅、馮沅君與許廣平等,以及男教職員如魯迅、周作人、徐祖正等,都發表此類作品或情書的選本。1920年代間,在性觀念與文藝風氣解放影響之下,情侶將彼此之間寫的情書,付梓成書,蔚為風行,其佼佼者,可舉黃廬隱與李唯建通信的選本,以及由魯迅與許廣平的情書而成的《兩地書》。至1930年代中,時空背景一轉,此種潮流便逝去,情書即使繼續問世,如郁達夫與王映霞、徐志摩與陸小曼、沈從文與張兆和或蕭紅與蕭軍之間的書信,但多半被收入別人的選本或讀本,不再由情侶自己刊出。 在決定是否要公開其情書的選擇上,可以看出當時文人對隱私的觀念,毫無疑問的因人而異,反而與年齡層、性別、交際、職業等各種因素皆無明顯關係。同時,就選擇發表情書的文人而言,無論是以潤飾過的真人真事的情書,或改變成書信文學的方式呈現出來的,作者似乎都意識到,為了隱藏更深層的情感,有必要犧牲某種程度的隱私。
Letters, especially love-letters, reveal private thoughts and emotions to a reader ship that may be intentionally finite or unintentionally infinite. The borderline between genuine and imagined letters and between private and open letters has always been fuzzy, as shown through out the history of European and Chinese letters. Imagined love-letters have appeared in Chinese fiction and drama since the Tang dynasty as devices to elaborate the plot, to reveal character and to provide variety in narration and dialogue. In the early 20th century they also served to evoke authenticity and to focus on the subjective and intimate. With few except ions, however, the publication of apparently authentic love-letters has been relatively rare in China. Epistolary fiction in Republican China owes some inspiration to European models such as Goethe's Das Leiden die jungen Werthers but has unique characteristics: written mainly by young women for a young female audience, short stories with an epistolary framework or consisting mainly of inserted letters were seen by writers and readers as a semiautobiographical genre for the exploration of themes such as friendship with other young women, intimate reflections on life and its travails, determination to choose one's own husband, and disillusionment following marriage based on free choice. The birthplace for epistolary fiction was Peking Women's Normal College, where the student group in the early 1920s included Huang Luyin, Shi Pingmei, Feng Yuanjun and Xu Guangping, and the male staff included Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren and Xu Zuzheng: all published epistolary fiction and/or collections of their letters in the 1920s and early 1930s. Early examples of epistolary fiction introduced a sudden fashion around the mid 1920s for literary couples to publish their own love-letters. One of the most notable examples is the exchange between Huang Luyin and Li Weijian. The most enduring collection of published love-letters, however , is Liang di shu, the correspondence between Lu Xun and Xu Guangping, the only one of the Republican collections still in print. Just as suddenly as the fashion arose, it had disappeared by the mid 1930s, when the particular conjunct ion of sexual and literary emancipation that led to the practice had passed. Although love-letters continued to be published, they tended to appear in collections or anthologies without their dialogic partners. Letters by famous literary couple s of the 1920s and 1930s not published by their author s include those between Yu Dafu and Wang Yingxia, Xu Zhimo and Lu Xiaoman, Shen Congwen and Zhang Zhaohe, and Xiao Hong and Xiao Jun. The difference in attitudes towards privacy shown by writers who did or did not publish their love-letters shows how idiosyncratic the sense of privacy was, with no obvious pattern in regard to age, gender or social and professional ties. At the same time, the way in which their letters were published, whether as heavily edited but nevertheless genuine letters or as thinly-disguised epistolary fiction, shows an awareness that some degree of privacy may need to be revealed in order that a deeper level can be concealed.


    

本卷期目次
欲掩彌彰:中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」--公義篇 1期 (2003.9)
征服情海:試掘一口情慾的老井/ 盧建榮
地域與國法-南宋「女子分法」與江南民間慣習關係再考/ 青木敦;譯:陳進盛;譯:鍾淑敏
晉南北朝時代的鄉里之情/ 劉增貴
市井與圍城-南朝建康宮廷文化之一側面/ 鄭毓瑜
胡適、吳宓和愛情-兼論私情與公論/ 汪榮祖
男性與自我的扮相:胡適的愛情、軀體與隱私觀/ 江勇振
Conflicting Emotions: Aspects of the Personal and Public in the Late Qing/ Peter Zarrow
Revealing to Conceal: Love-letters and Privacy in Republican China/ Bonnie S. McDougall
Sentiments and Interests in Marriage Ceremonies in the Late Qing Period/ Mechthild Leutner
兒女情短、英雄氣長:辛亥革命時期的性別與革命/ 呂芳上
慾望之河--唐代情、義邊界的建構和逾越/ 盧建榮
情之景-宋代山水畫中的浪漫情思/ 包華石
情義難決:從近代中國的兩性關係說起/ 呂芳上
依違於私情與公義之間-孟姜女故事流轉探析/ 劉靜貞
 
   
 
   

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