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1
題名:單雜交玉米臺農1號及其父、母本自交系氮素同化與利用性狀對兩種氮肥用量的反應    
Response of Nitrogen Assimilation and Utilization of Corn Hybrid Tainung 1 and Its Parental Inbreds to Two Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization
著者:陳建成(C. C. Chen) ;王強生(C. S. Wang) ;劉大江(D. J. Liu)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台中市
學科:農林漁牧礦科學
刊名:中華農業研究
卷期:39卷2期(1990.6)
頁碼:84-95
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

本試驗以臺農Ⅰ號及其父、母本自交系為材料,採用氮素用量60與180kg/ha處理,探討基因型與氮肥用量對乾物質與氮素累積及分配的影響,著重吐絲前與吐絲後的比較,並經由氮素利用效率組成因子分析,解釋產量表現的差異。施用重氮肥明顯增加成熟期植株乾物質與子粒產量,收穫指數有提升趨勢,自交系與雜交種之反應相同。雜交品種於吐絲後生成之乾物量佔總乾物量60%以上,並為子粒產量之1.25倍以上,氮肥用量的作用不明顯,顯示具有充份的同化能力因應子粒充實需要,其表現亦頗穩定。臺農1號父本植株吐絲後累積乾物量為子粒重之1.7倍,顯示產量極端受限於積儲能力,母本之表現則與雜交種相近。低氮肥條件下臺農1號葉片氮素濃度低於父、母本自交系,推測不足以支持高光合作用速率,又父本營養及生殖器官氮素濃度極高,與其積儲強度較弱有關,但雜交種子粒碳氮比值顯著較父、母本為高,顯示三個基因型子粒累積碳素與氮素的相互配合速率應有不同。臺農1號植株每公頃累積氮素量最高可達230 kg以上,氮素收穫指數為0.67-0.71,後者不受氮肥用量影響;臺農1號母本植株之氮素收穫指數僅為0.47-0.52,但氮素分配於苞葉與穗軸比率顯著超過父本及雜交種植株,顯示父、母本在碳素及氮素利用方面的差異。臺農1號吐絲後累積氮素量為總含量之60%以上,並與子粒含氮量相近,亦即具有旺盛的氮素同化能力;父、母本自交系吐絲後累積氮素量為總含量之26-51%,且父本之累積量僅為子粒氮含量之41-78%,氮素同化能力可能限制產量表現。玉米氮素利用效率以雜交種最高,主要的影響因子為氮素吸收效率及子粒內單位氮量之對應乾物生成量,氮素吸收效率因氮肥用量增多而降低,可供今後品種選育之參考。
Corn hybrid Tainung 1 and its parential inbreds were cultured under two levels of N-fertilization (60 and 180 kg N/ha) to study the accumulation and partition of dry matter and N during their growth course. Components of N use efficiency were compared for the interpretation of yield performances. Heavy N-fertilization increased significantly the yields of dry matter and kernel, as well as harvest index at harvest, for Tainung 1 and its parental inbreds. Amount of dry matter produced after silking accounted for over 60% of total dry matter, or at least 1.25 times the dry weight of kernels for Tainung 1 suggesting active assimilation of photosynthates for the demands of kernel-filling. Dry matter produced after silking for paternal inbred of Tainung 1 was equivalent to 1.7 times the dry weight of kernels, implying severe limitation of kernel yield by sink ability. N concentrations of vegetative and reproductive organs of the paternal inbred exceeded those of hybrid Tainung 1 and the maternal inbred. It was suggested that the corresponding rates of accumulating carbohydrates and N by kernels of the three genotypes were different. Total amount of N accumulated by Tainung 1 was as high as 230 kg/ha under heavy N-fertilization. Harvest N index, which was consistent under the experiment treatment, ranged from 0.67 to 0.71. For maternal inbred, the index was only 0.47-0.52, while partition rations of N in the husks and cob were significantly higher than those of the other two genotypes. The differences in their post-silking abilities of assimilating C and N was reflected by the differences in C/N ratio of the kernels. The amount of N assimilated by Tainung 1 during kernel-filling accounted for over 60% of total N present at harevst, which was equivalent to the amount of N accumulated by the kernels. A balanced status of N assimilation and demand was therefore suggested. N use efficiency was highest for hydrid Tainung 1 than the two parental indreds. The major influencing factors were N uptake efficiency and the amount of dry matter produced in response to unit N accumulated by the kernel. N uptake efficiency decreased with increasing N-fertilization. Improving the N use efficiency of paternal inbred for possible improvement of hybrid yield performance was proposed.


    

本卷期目次
中華農業研究 39卷2期 (1990.6)
稻麴病發生生態與防治/ 蔡武雄簡錦忠黃杉芪
葡萄晚腐病菌之致病性/ 段中漢謝文瑞
Mass Production of Phytoseiids: Ⅰ. Evaluation on Eight Host Plants for the Mass-rearing of Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acarina: Tetranychidae)/ Wen-Tai LeeChyi-Chen HoKang-Chen Lo
利用法拉斯捕植蟎及智利捕植蟎防治茶神澤氏葉蟎之探討/ 何琦琛
農試型落花生聯合收穫機之研製Ⅱ/ 梁連勝蔡致榮陸龍虎顏秀榮周廷弘
鮮菇超級片型切製機之研製/ 梁連勝顏秀榮
A Study on Mathematical Models for Predicting Water Activity in Multicomponent Foods/ Chia-Chung Chen
米粒外觀與胴割粒率間相關性之探討/ 趙政男
單雜交玉米臺農1號及其父、母本自交系氮素同化與利用性狀對兩種氮肥用量的反應/ 陳建成王強生劉大江
鉀肥種類與用量對藺草品質與產量之影響/ 胡敏夫張愛華呂秀英劉新裕
 
   
 
   

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