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題名:白米胺基酸含量品種間之差異及其與食味間之關係    
Studies on the Differences of Amino Acids of Milled Rice among Rice Varieties and its Relationship to Eating Quality of Cooked Rice
著者:吳永培(Yong-Pei Wu) ;許愛娜(Ai-Na Hsu) ;謝兆樞(Jaw-Shu Hsieh) ;黃懿秦(Yih-Ching Huang)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台中市
學科:農林漁牧礦科學
關鍵字:胺基酸 ; 食味 ; 水稻品種 ; Amino acid ; Eating quality ; Rice varieties
刊名:中華農業研究
卷期:49卷4期(2000.12)
頁碼:1-15
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

本研究以54個水稻品種為材料,探討米粒胺基酸含量於品種間之差異及其與食味官能品評特性之關係,其中秈與稉稻間胺基酸之比較除半胱胺酸(half cysteine)含量秈稻顯著高於稉稻,而絲胺酸(serine)含量以稉稻顯著高於秈稻外,其餘胺基酸含量在兩型稻間則差異不顯著,顯示兩型稻胺基酸含量及組成十分接近。比較五種不同來源水稻類型(日本稻、台灣稉稻、IRRI稻、台灣秈稻及美國稻)胺基酸含量之差異,結果發現除色胺酸、甲硫胺酸、半胱胺酸、絲胺酸等在五種不同來源稻品種類型間有差異外,其餘胺基酸均差異不顯著。不同分類特性之胺基酸在五種不同水稻類型間除了含硫胺基酸有差異外,其餘不同之胺基酸類型在五種不同水稻類型間亦無差異。在54個品種分析中,食味總評與離氨酸(lysine)、色氨酸(tryptophan)、異亮氨酸(isoleucine)、半胱氨酸、酪氨酸(tyrosine)、脯氨酸(proline)、纈氨酸(valine)及丙氨酸(alanine)等8種胺基酸有負相關關係,而含硫胺基酸之含量與食味總評間亦呈負相關;在24個秈稻品種分析中,食味總評與離氨酸、色氨酸、異亮氨酸、脯氨酸、甘氨酸(glycine)及纈氨酸等6種胺基酸呈負相關;在30個稉稻品種分析中,食味總評與異亮氨酸、苯丙氨酸(phenylalanine)、酪氨酸、穀氨酸(glutamic acid)、纈氨酸及精氨酸(arginine)等6種胺基酸亦呈負相關,而與必需胺基酸、酸性、鹼性及極性胺基酸、含硫胺基酸、脂肪族胺基酸、芳香族胺基酸等含量均呈負相關。利用18種胺基酸含量對食味總評進行逐步迴歸分析,結果在54個品種、秈稻及稉稻中,建立之最佳迴歸模式對食味變異解釋率分別為82.6%、94.2%及29.1%。而在利用主成份逐步迴歸分析法建立者最佳迴歸模式對食味變異解釋分別為84.1%、99.1%及43.7%。顯示稻米胺基酸含量、類型與食味間關係十分密切,且關係會因秈、稉稻不同而異,而胺基酸含量變化應可做食味變異掌握之指標。
The aims of our research is to evaluate the differences of 18 amino acid contents of milled rice and its relationships to eating quality of cooked rice among rice varieties, According to the results of analyses, the cysteine content of japonica rice varieties was significantly higher than that of indica rice varieties. On the contrary, the serine content of japonica rice varieties was significantly lower than that of indica rice varieties. No significant difference was found in other 16 amino acids between both types of rice varieties. However, significant differences existed among those five different types of rice varieties (Japanese rice, Taiwan. japonica rice, Taiwan indica rice, American rice and IRRI rice) in tryptophan, methionine, cysteine and serine contents by multiple comparisons tests. Also, the content of amino acids with sulfur-containing side chain was significant different among above five different types of rice varieties. The results of correlation analyses indicated that the overall sensory evaluation of cooked rice (OVE) were negatively correlated with the contents of lysine, tryptophan, isoleucine, half cysteine, tyrosine, proline, valine, alanine and the contents of amino acids with sulfur-containing side chain in 54 rice varieties; however, there also existed negative correlations between OVE and lysine, trptopan, isoleucine, proline, glycine, valine in 24 indica rice varieties. Negative correlation relationships between OVE and isoleucine, phenyalanine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, valine, arginine, the contents of essential, acid, basic, polar amino acids and the contents of amino acid with sulfur, aromatic, aliphatic containing side chains were also existed for 30 japonica rice varieties. The stepwise regression analyses between OVE and the contents of 18 amino acids indicated that the best regression equations could explain the 82.6% variation of OVE in 54 rice varieties, 94.2% in indica rice, 29.1% in japonica rice, respectively. The principal component stepwise regression analysis between OVE and the contents of 18 amino acids indicated that the best regression equations could explain the 84.1% variation of OVE in 54 rice varieties, 99.1% in indica rice, 43.7% in japonica rice, respectively. These results showed that there were close correlations between the contents of amino acids and OVE of rice varieties. It was indicated that the contents of amino acids might be used as a criterion of OVE in the breeding program for improving the quality. However, the relationships between the contents of amino acids and overall sensory evaluation were different in japonica and indicia rice varieties. Therefore, it suggested that the breeding program for improving the quality of japonica and indica rice should be established separately.




本卷期目次
中華農業研究 49卷4期 (2000.12)
白米胺基酸含量品種間之差異及其與食味間之關係/ 吳永培許愛娜謝兆樞黃懿秦
DSSAT模式在预測水稻産量及氣候變遷衝擊評估之通用性探討/ 姚銘輝盧虎生朱鈞蔡金川
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台灣主要柑橘有機施肥之效益評估/ 潘德芳葉節耀
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