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1
題名:藥劑對南美斑潛蠅(Liriomyza huidobrensis)(雙翅目:潛蠅科)及其薹潛蠅繭蜂(Opius caricivorae)(膜翅目:小繭蜂科)存活與生育力之影響    
Effect of Insecticides on Survival and Fertility of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Its Parasitoid, Opius caricivorae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
著者:錢景秦(Ching-Chin Chien) ;張淑貞(Shu-Chen Chang)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台中市
學科:農林漁牧礦科學
關鍵字:斑潛蠅 ; 南美斑潛蠅 ; 寄生蜂 ; 薹潛蠅繭蜂 ; 藥劑 ; 蟲期 ; Leafminer ; Liriomyza huidobrensis ; Parasitoid ; Opius caricivorae ; Insecticide ; Development Stages
刊名:台灣農業研究
卷期:61卷4期(2012.12)
頁碼:316-329
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

薹潛蠅繭蜂(Opius caricivorae Fischer)為台灣地區南美斑潛蠅[Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard)]重要本地種寄生蜂。本文以藥劑浸漬帶有南美斑潛蠅與寄生蜂豆葉之方法,於室內測試歐殺滅(oxamyl SL)、阿巴汀(abamectin EC)及賽滅淨(cyromazine SL, WP)等藥劑對南美斑潛蠅及其薹潛蠅繭蜂存活與生育力之影響。結果得知上述三種藥劑均對南美斑潛蠅具顯著致死效果,可供該蠅防治用。歐殺滅與阿巴汀對南美斑潛蠅各蟲期之防治效能,均以卵與幼蟲期最高,存活率為0%;其次為成蟲期,成蠅接觸上述二種藥劑24小時,其間雌蠅存活率、雄蠅存活率、產卵數及取食刻點數,不僅各受到27.1與25.1、40.5與38.8、90.3與98.6及94.6%與99.2%之抑制,尚對之後的雌蠅壽命、雄蠅壽命、子代成蠅數及取食刻點數,各達50.8與67.8、59.8與71.7、88.1與93.3及84.3%與93.9%之抑制。賽滅淨二種劑型(溶液與可濕性粉劑)對南美斑潛蠅各蟲期之防治效能一致,均以幼蟲期最高,存活率為0%;成蟲期次之,成蠅接觸此藥劑不同劑型24小時,其間藥劑對成蠅存活率、產卵數及取食刻點數等,雖均無顯著直接影響,但對之後的雌蠅壽命、雄蠅壽命、子代成蠅數及取食刻點數,各達26.0與26.6、39.4與43.3、89.6與85.1及86.2%與83.9%之抑制;卵期影響最小,該劑二種劑型對孵化率之抑制雖僅各達23.7%與25.7%,但對其後第一幼蟲存活率之抑制各達49.8%與45.5%,對第二齡幼蟲存活率之抑制均達100%。薹潛蠅繭蜂方面,三種藥劑雖均對薹潛蠅繭蜂卵期無顯著毒害,但其後幼蟲至蛹期之存活率均降為0%。成蜂各接觸三種藥劑24小時,其中以阿巴汀最毒,雌、雄蜂存活率各顯著降低90.0%與46.7%;歐殺滅次之,僅顯著降低雌蜂存活率21.4%;賽滅淨二種劑型則對雌、雄蜂存活率均無顯著抑制影響。致死寄主方面,三種藥劑分別與薹潛蠅繭蜂併用,各處理組之致死寄主率均達100%,單用薹潛蠅繭蜂者則僅64.8%。生殖力方面,阿巴汀與歐殺滅均顯著各減少86.2%與67.7%產卵量與100%子代成蜂數,賽滅淨二種劑型則僅減少100%子代成蜂數。成蜂各接觸三種藥劑24小時後,繼之供以未經藥劑處理之南美斑潛蠅幼蟲,結果僅阿巴汀對寄生蜂雌、雄蜂壽命及生育力,各顯著減少80.7、59.0及100%;至於歐殺滅與二種劑型之賽滅淨,無論對薹潛蠅繭蜂之壽命、生育力及子代雌性比均無顯著影響。綜合考慮藥劑對薹潛蠅繭蜂之直接與亞致死影響,由於賽滅淨二種劑型均對南美斑潛蠅具高毒性,但對薹潛蠅繭蜂之毒性較低,因而在寄生蜂安全上,建議在南美斑潛蠅防治中賽滅淨可與薹潛蠅繭蜂配合施用。
Opius caricivorae Fischer is an important species of native parasitoid of leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) in Taiwan. In this study, seedlings of field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. communis Aeschers) treated with insecticides (oxamyl SL, abamectin EC, cyromazine SL, or cyromazine WP) were used to determine effect of insecticides on survival and fertility of leafminer (L. huidobrensis) and its parasitoid (O. caricivorae) at different development stages under laboratory conditions. Results showed that all the insecticides (oxamyl, abamectin, cyromazine SL and cyromazine WP) had significant (P<0.05) lethal effects on L. huidobrensis and could be used in the control of leafminer. The highest lethal effect of oxamyl and abamectin was at the egg and larval stages with a survival rate of 0%, and the second most effective period was at the adult stage. When adult flies were treated with either oxamyl or abamectin for 24 hours, the female survival rate, male survival rate, number of eggs and number of feeding stipples decreased by 25.1-27.1, 38.8-40.5, 90.3-98.6 and 94.6-99.2%, respectively. The female longevity, male longevity, adult progeny and number of feeding stipples after treatment for 24 hours also decreased by 50.8-67.8, 59.8-71.7, 88.1-93.3 and 84.3-93.9%, respectively. The highest lethal effect of the two cyromazine formulations was at the larval stage with a survival rate of 0% and the second most effective period was at the adult stage. Treatment of adult flies with each of the two cyromazine formulations for 24 hours resulted in no significant reduction in female survival rate, male survival rate, number of eggs, and feeding stipples. However, both formulations reduced female longevity, male longevity, adult progeny and number of feeding stipples after treatment for 24 hours by 26.0-26.6, 39.4-43.3, 85.1-89.6 and 83.9-86.2%, respectively. The two cyromazine formulations had least effect on the egg stage of L. huidobrensis with 23.7-25.7% reduction of egg hatching rate and larval mortality rate of 45.5-49.8% for the 1st instar and 100% for the 2nd instar. All the insecticides had no lethal effect on the egg stage of the parasitoid O. caricivora, but they were lethal on larval to pupal stages of this wasp with a survival rate of 0%. Abamectin was the most toxic insecticide on the wasp among the insecticides tested. When adult wasps were treated with insecticide for 24 hours, the survival rates of female and male decreased 90.0% and 46.7%, respectively, for the treatment of abamectin; the survival rate of female decreased 21.4% for the treatment of oxamyl. The percentage of hosts (L. huidobrensis) killed by the combined treatment of insecticide and wasps was 100%, compared to 64.8% killed by the treatment of wasps alone. After the adult wasps were treated with either abamectin or oxamyl, the number of eggs and progeny of adult wasps decreased by 67.7-86.2% and 100%, respectively, compared to the decrease of 0% in number of eggs and 100% of progeny of adult wasps by the treatment of cyromazine. When adult wasps were treated with each of the three insecticides for 24 hours and released on untreated bean seedlings infested with hosts (L. huidobrensis) daily, abamectin caused a reduction in longevity of female and male wasps by 80.7% and 59.0%, and fertility of wasps by 100%. However, no effect was observed on longevity, fertility, and female proportion of wasps when oxamyl and two formulations of cyromazie were used. For the direct and sublethal effects of insecticides on L. huidobrensis and O. caricivorae, cyromazine either in SL (solution liquid) or WP (wettable powder) is highly toxic to leafminer but is least toxic to wasps (O. caricivorae) and, therefore, combined application of cyromazine and wasps in the control program of L. huidobrensis is commended.


    

本卷期目次
台灣農業研究 61卷4期 (2012.12)
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