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題名:蔬菜真空式育苗播種一貫作業機之設計研製    
The Development and Deeign of Automatic Vacuum Seeder for Box-raised Vegetable Seeding
著者:游俊明(Chun-Ming Yu) ;張金發(Chin-Fa Chang) ;張學琨(Shueh-Kun Chang)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:桃園縣
學科:農林漁牧礦科學
刊名:桃園區農業改良場研究報告
卷期:8期(1991.9)
頁碼:31-44
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

本場為配合大型蔬菜育苗中心之需要,已設計研製成一套真空吸氣式育苗播種一貫作業機。該機係利用真空吸力原理將種子吸起,然後播種於育苗箱之方格內,其作業程序依次為入箱、填土、壓實打孔、播種、灑水、覆土、出箱等一貫化作業。經測試結果,以孔徑0.8m/m之吸附孔,調整吸力至76mmHg及加設吹氣設備,播種甘藍種子時,每箱播一粒之百分率佔90.0%,每格二粒以上者僅5.5%,不吸種子者佔4.5%,工作效率為每小時240箱,比人工快約36倍,本機亦可作西瓜、甜椒、蕃茄及菸葉等作物之育苗播種用,此外本機之噴水裝置亦可加入各種殺菌劑,以供種子消毒處理。
Vegetables have long been a major agricultural production in Taiwan with their cultivation area estimated to be around 224,000 hectares. In the early phase of vegetable production, two types of operations are currently practiced. Vegetables can be directly seeded in the field or can be seeded in nursery boxes before seedlings are transplanted. There are several advantages of the latter practice over the former one, they are: (1) stronger seedling in the field. (2) higher yield, and (3) the harvest day can be advanced. These advantages have gradually been realized by the vegetable growers in recent years and this model of vegetable production has been encouraged by the government agencies. In the year of 1988. three demonstration nursery centers have been initiated with the aids from the Department of Agriculture and Forestry. Large seedling nursery house incorporated with seeding and transplanting machines have been established in order to demonstrate the production operations and accordingly to promote the mechanization of vegetable production in Taiwan. This is expected to solve part of the present problems as labor shortage, high labor charge and to reduce the production cost in vegetable production.
As the demand of vegetable seedlings has greatly increased, large scale seedling production has become an inevitable trend. This also justifies the need of automatic production lines for large amount of seeded nursery boxes. A Continuous-operation seeder is designed for vegetable nursery operation of large-scale seedling production. The whole seeding operation comprises several steps from loading nursery box, filling soil, watering, vacuum seeding, covering soil, to unloading the nursery box. Cabbage seeds have been used to test the performance of this continuous-operation seeder. The seeding operation of the vacuum seeder is precise and efficient. Using orifices of 0.80 mm inner diameter and operating at a vacuum of 76 mmHg with additional air-flow device, more than 90% of the cells in the nursery box were precisely seeded with single seed. Two hundred and forty nursery boxes can be seeded in an hour which is about 36 times faster than that by hand. Besides cabbage seeds, various seeds such as watermelon, sweet pepper. tomato and tobacco have also been tested successfully with this continuous-operation seeder.
Since the germination rate of vegetable seeds are usually between 80 to 85 %, seed sterilization process prior to the vacuum seeding is necessary to ensure higher germination rate. Also, it is recommended that the seeds must be screened to eliminate defective seeds or unwanted materials for the vacuum seeder and thereby to enhance the overall precision seeding performance.
It can be anticipated that well-managed and mechanized vegetable nursery centers will become a future trend to supply vegetable seedlings for vegetable growers in Taiwan. It Is suggested that for large-scale seedling production, a seedling nursery house about 600 m2 in size equipped with continuous operation seeder and transplanting machines would seem to be an appropriate model for future needs. More nursery centers are worthwhile to be established therefore to elevate the vegetable production in Taiwan.


    

本卷期目次
桃園區農業改良場研究報告 8期 (1991.9)
植苗數與氮肥施量對仙草產量與品質之影響/ 姜金龍史宏財龔財立
長期施用台肥5號複合肥料對柑桔果實品質及產量之影響/ 莊浚釗
蔬菜真空式育苗播種一貫作業機之設計研製/ 游俊明張金發張學琨
農民講習合格師資人員績效評估/ 邱發祥
The Association of Seed Size With and Among the Other Traits in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill)/ Wei-Ho Lin
種植期及低溫處理對小蒼蘭生育及開花之影響/ 吳麗春傅仰人
 
   
 
   

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