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題名:二年制輪作制度對澎湖雜糧作物生產力之影響    
Effect of Cropping Systems on Productivity of Dryland Crops in Penghu Area
著者:周國隆(Kuo-Lung Chou)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:屏東縣
學科:農林漁牧礦科學
關鍵字:耕作制度 ; 冬季綠肥 ; 澎湖地區 ; 毛豆 ; 食用玉米 ; 落花生 ; 甘藷 ; 油菜 ; Cropping system ; Winter green manure ; Penghu area ; Vegetable soybean ; Table corn ; Peanut ; Sweet potato ; Rape
刊名:行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場研究彙報
卷期:10卷2期(1999.6)
頁碼:1-11
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

本試驗目的是在澎湖地區中鹼性土壤下,探討二年制旱田輪作制度,並配合冬季休閒期種植綠肥,期選出適合澎湖地區種植之旱作物及最高效益之輪作制度,以改善土壤肥力及減少作物病蟲害,並提高作物產量與品質。經1994~1997年二次二年制輪作試驗結果,以「春作毛豆-夏作食用玉米-秋裡作油菜綠肥」與「春作甘藷-秋裡作油菜綠肥」相互輪作,形成二年制輪作制度,較適合澎湖地區無防風設施下之農田採用。惟春作毛豆生育初期(3~4月)偶有鹽風及夏作食用玉米生育期間(7~9月)正值颱風盛期,風險較大。若配合農林混植模式,即在檉柳防風林下進行,可減少其風險,並且可將此輪作制度修正為「春作毛豆-夏作食用玉米-秋裡作油菜綠肥或甘藷」作為一年制輪作制度。甘藷塊根產量方面,經1995及1997年兩年試驗結果,前一年秋裡作有無種植油菜綠肥,對後作甘藷有很大的影響。輪作區秋裡作休耕處理之公頃塊根產量較輪作區秋裡作有種植油菜綠肥之各處理平均減產25.6%。顯示澎湖無防風設施之農田,應於冬季鹽風期間種植油菜綠肥,不僅可保護土壤,減少肥沃表土遭受東北鹽風吹失,並且綠肥經犁入土中,可釋放出養分及增加土壤有機物,對後作甘藷產量有增產效果。春作雜草仍以闊葉草較多,尖葉草較少,而冬季撒播之油菜綠肥自播性很強,在翌年春作各試區均發現取代了大部分的雜草種類,而成為農田主要的雜草相。在土壤分析方面,澎湖土壤之pH值及EC值受季節性環境影響較大,受輪作制度影響較小。在冬季鹽風期間,土壤之pH值及EC值急遽上升,而有機質常隨表土吹失而下降。為保護土壤,維持地力,可利用此時種植油菜綠肥,作為覆蓋作物,以減緩土壤pH值及EC值的上升,維持O.M.及K2O含量,但對P2O5含量之影響較小。
The purpose of this experiment was to find out reasonable rotation pattern and to improve soil fertility by planting rape green manure during fall crop in moderate alkaline soil on Penghu area. The results were summarized as follow:
The experiment of cropping systems was conducted from 1994 to 1997, the experimental results showed that the treatment C, including the spring vegetable, summer sweet corn and fall rape for the first year; spring sweet potato and fall rape for the second year, was the best rotation pattern. However, at the early stage of the spring vegetable soybean may meet the salt-wind, and the summer table corn may be damaged by typhoon seriously. Thus, treatment C may be amended to an annual rotation system, including spring vegetable soybean, summer table corn and fall rape or sweet potato. In addition, for decreasing the damages from wind break, the agroforestry moded developed by the Penghu Branch Station can also be applied.
The rape can be grown as a green manure in winter on Penghu, and it affected the root yield of sweet potato in the following year. For those treatments with growing rape in winter season, the average root yield increase 25.6% over the treatment without planting rape. It indicated that the open field without windbreak should grow rape in winter in order to protect the soil and to increase the soil fertility. Among the treatments with growing rape in winter, it found that certain rotation pattern was better than the continuous cropping.
For weed survey, broad-leaf weeds became the major weeds, mainly because of the self-germinaled rape plants replace the traditional weeds in spring field. For soil analysis, the soil pH and EC values were affcted mainly by seasonal environment. In winter, the soil pH and EC values were increasing, and the organic matter was decreasing due to the loss of surface soil by strong winter wind. Thus, it is suggested to grow rape in winter for protecting the soil and incerasing the O. M. and K2O contents.




本卷期目次
行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場研究彙報 10卷2期 (1999.6)
二年制輪作制度對澎湖雜糧作物生產力之影響/ 周國隆
本土蟲生線蟲之採集及對黃條葉蚤田間防治效果評估/ 李平全
不同氮肥施用量對紅豆接種根瘤菌生長與產量之影響/ 李銘全許秋玫林順臺洪阿田
茄子「高雄一號」品種之育成/ 黃賢喜戴順發韓青梅
澎湖地區高品質洋香瓜栽培之研究Ⅱ種植期與結果節位上方葉片數對溫室洋香瓜生長與品質之影響/ 施純堅
 
   
 
   

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