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dvd臺灣農村規劃的在地美臺灣獵鹿季節
   
   
   
     
   
 
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1
題名:人工復育倉鴞在美國肯塔基州中部野放之研究    
Post-release Movements, Behavior and Survival of Captive-raised Barn Owls (Tyto alba) in Central Kentucky
著者:簡哲仲(Jer-Chung Chien)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:社科綜合 ; 生命科學
關鍵字:倉鴞 ; 人工復育 ; 無線電 ; 擴散 ; Barn Owl ; captive-raised ; radio ; dispersal
刊名:台灣猛禽研究
卷期:5期(2005.9)
頁碼:1-23
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

在北美地區,倉鴞(Tyto alba)的族群數量於過去的50年裡已逐漸減少。其族群減少的原因可能歸咎於棲地的減少、合適巢區的消失、農藥的使用造成倉鴞殘餘化學物質的二次毒害、以及車禍導致族群死亡率增高等因素。野放人工復育的倉鴞,或許是增加倉鴞在肯塔基州及相鄰地區的野外族群一個可行的方法。本研究的目標是在肯塔基州中部地區野放人工復育的倉鴞,追蹤並記錄其野放後的行為以及存活率。
本研究執行期間自2002年5月至2003年6月。上標倉鴞(N=32)被野放於肯塔基州的Madison及Fayette counties的4個野放點,而後追蹤它們的行為及移動。倉鴞野放後第1天的平均移動距離為0.48km (N=19),且公、母鳥間並無顯著差異(P=0.89)。5隻倉鴞在野放後被發現死亡或是被掠食者捕殺,其屍體發現位置距野放點的平均距離為3.59 km。其中2隻蒼鴞顯然是遭掠食者捕殺,有1隻蒼鴞遭車輛撞擊死亡,另外有1隻可能是飢餓致死,而第5隻蒼鴞的死因則無法確定。本研究發現12隻蒼鴞所利用38個不同的棲息點,包含棲息於4個穀倉裡及37棵不同的樹上。倉鴞棲息在樹上的平均高度為7.5 m (N=61),平均的樹高為12.5 m (N=62)。比較蒼鴞棲息點及周邊的棲地利用情況,其結果顯示於Madison County內,棲地利用比例最高的開闊草生地在倉鴞友利用及沒有利用的區域內無顯著的不同(P=0.41)。從7隻蒼鴞棲息處共收集到142個食繭,而這些食繭(N=124)當中,平均含有3.64種食物,其中最普遍的是鼩鼱(35.1%),大草原田鼠(28.4%),以及未確認種類的蚱蜢(23.5%)。野放後被追蹤至少40天的倉鴞(N=5),其從野放點移動的平均距離為7.5 km。但另有22隻蒼鴞的最後位置及野放結果無法確定,若假設無線電發訊器功能正常且在空中追蹤時訊號接收沒有遺漏,則那些失蹤的倉鴞明顯地從野放點擴散超過35 km。
本研究的結果類似先前的復育研究,特別是在兩方面。第1點是倉鴞傾向於擴散遠離野放點,而第2點是幼鴞的死亡率高。此結果顯示倉鴞的復育-野放計畫是有潛在可能增加野外族群數,然而高死亡率與擴散遠離野放點的情形,造成以增加特定區域的族群數為目的之計畫更難達成。由於倉鴞相較於其他的猛禽而言,擁有較高的繁殖潛力,和較遠的擴散距離。因此要增加區域內族群數量,較好的策略可能須確認該區域內有足夠合適的覓食棲地,以及可利用的繁殖場所。
Populations of Barn Owls (Tyto alba) in North America have declined over the past 50 years, with loss of suitable habitat, reduced availability of suitable nest sites, secondary poisoning from pesticides, and increased mortality due to collisions with vehicles being possible factors. One possible means of increasing Barn Owl populations in Kentucky, and perhaps elsewhere, is to release captive-bred individuals. The objective of this study was to release and monitor the behavior and survival rates of captive-reared Barn Owls in central Kentucky.
This study was conducted from May 2002 through June 2003. Radio-tagged Barn Owls (N=32) were released at four locations in Madison and Fayette counties and an attempt made to monitor their behavior and movements. For dispersing Barn Owls the mean distance moved during the first night after release was 0.48 (N=19), with no difference between the sexes (P=0.89). Five Barn Owls either died or 3.59 km from release sites. Two owls appeared to have been killed by predators, one was hit by a vehicle, another apparently died of starvation, and the cause of death of the fifth owl could not be determined. Barn Owls used 38 different roost sites, with owls roosting in four barns and 34 different trees. Owls roosted at a mean height of 7.5 m (N=61) in trees with a mean height of 12.5 m (N=62). Comparison of habitats in areas occupied by owls and similar-sized, randomly-selected, apparently unused areas (N=6) in Madison County revealed no significant difference (P=0.41), with open grassland the most abundant habitat in both occupied and unused areas. Pellets (N=142) were collected from seven Barn Owls, and the mean number of prey items per pellet (N=124) was 3.64, the most common were shrews (35.1%), Prairie Voles (28.4%), and unidentified grasshoppers (23.5%). For Barn Owls monitored for at least 40 days post-release during this study (N=5), the mean distance moved from release sites was 7.5 km. However, the location and fates of 22 owls were unknown and, assuming the transmitters on these owls were functional and no signals were missed during the aerial searches for missing owls, these Barn Owls apparently dispersed more than about 35 km.
The results of this study suggest that Barn Owls exhibited a tendency to disperse away from release sites and, second, mortality rates for young whose fate was determined were high. Such results indicate that while captive-release programs for Barn Owls may have the potential to enhance wild populations, high mortality rates and dispersal from release sites mean that attempting to augment populations in specific locations would likely be difficult, if not impossible. Because Barn Owls, compared to other raptors, have high reproductive potential and are known to disperse considerable distances, a better strategy for augmenting populations may be to simply ensure that sufficient suitable habitat and nest sites are available.




本卷期目次
台灣猛禽研究 5期 (2005.9)
人工復育倉鴞在美國肯塔基州中部野放之研究/ 簡哲仲
蘭嶼角鴞的親子鑑定/ 許育誠劉小如李壽先費馬克林曜松
台北地區大冠鷲的繁殖生態綜論/ 林文宏
翠峰湖白尾海鵰觀察記錄/ 林芳澤
利用數位影像分辨花鵰之個體/ 鍾金男
林鵰在台灣北端大屯山區的首度發現/ 李俊鋒
猛禽網站巡禮/ 張宏銘
猛禽新聞/ 《台灣猛禽研究》編輯室
Raptor Watch, A Global Directory of Raptor Migration Sites/ 王誠之
 
   
 
   

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