原名「台灣學術線上」
包含TAO期刊庫 + TAO書籍庫 + 論文 + 史料文獻
首頁 | 關於TAO | 瀏覽 | 進階查詢 | 參考工具 | 會員服務 | 已購專書 | RSS服務 | 電子報 | FAQ  
查詢範圍:
   
查詢模式:
熱門查詢詞:
dvd網咖消費者顧客滿意度資優生world
   
   
   
     
   
 
項次 書目
1
題名:民國66年台南地區稻作病蟲害之發生概況    
The Occurrence of Rice Diseases and Insect Pests in Tainan District During 1977
著者:方新政(H. C. Fang) ;黃杉茋(S. C. Hwang) ;郭振欽(C. C. Kuo) ;李對(T. Li) ;張賜海(T. H. Chang) ;何新奇(H. C. Ho) ;黃榮作(T. T. Huang) ;林義雄(I. H. Lin) ;郭白井(P. C. Kuo) ;方德利(T. L. Fang) ;郭聰明(T. M. Kuo) ;黃天福(T. F. Huang)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台南市
學科:農林漁牧礦科學
刊名:臺灣省臺南區農業改良場研究彙報
卷期:12期(1979.5)
頁碼:1-21
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

1.民國66年台南區發生之水稻主要病虫害,一期作有葉稻熱病、穗稻熱病、紋枯病、褐飛蝨。二期作有白葉枯病、紋枯病、褐飛蝨、縱捲葉虫、不稔症等。
2.病虫害發生與氣象關係:
(1)葉稻熱病:一期作被害面積約1953.3公頃,其被害度為2.5%,二期作被害面積約431.8公頃,被害度為0.58%。由於今年2、3、4月降雨量少,日照長,因而葉稻熱病發生較往年晚,而且輕微,又部分發病嚴重地區栽培抗病品種(台南六號),故被害不嚴重。
(2)穗稻熱病:一期作被害面積1764.6公頃,被害度為10.6%,二期作被害面積574.4公頃,被害度為4.9%。因5、6月降雨量多,正逢水稻抽穗期,因而部分地區被害嚴重。
(3)紋枯病:一期作被害面積約為5327.7公頃,被害度為13.1%,二期作被害積約為974.6公頃,被害度為9.4%。因一期作後期(5月、6月)連續下雨,氣溫亦高,故被害嚴重,尤以雲林、嘉義地區之晚植稻為甚,二期作因7月8月下雨故普遍早發生,但10月以後無雨,氣溫又下降,因而停止蔓延。
(4)白葉枯病:一期作沒發生,二期作被害面積約1403.7公頃,被害度為22.7%。因7月、8月遭受雨次颱風的侵襲,且部分地區栽培之品種較易罹病(台農育A6號、非洲種、台南6號等),因而發生較往年嚴重。
(5)褐飛蝨:一期作被害面積約1187.7公頃,被害度為1.1%,二期作被害面積約為16067公頃,其被害度為9.5%。一期作生育期中雨量少,氣溫高,日照充足,有利其繁殖,因而普遍發生,由於一期作的普遍發生,二期作本應更嚴重發生,然因7、8月兩次暴風雨的影響,雖普遍發生,但其棲群密度不高,故水稻受害不嚴重。
(6)縱捲葉虫:近年來由於農藥使用的變遷,本虫已漸成為重要害虫,僅次於褐發蝨。今年一期作被害面積約195公頃,二期作被害面積約6684.9公頃。
3.預測灯誘殺的主要害虫有褐飛蝨、黑尾浮塵子、縱捲葉虫、二化螟及電光浮塵子等,其發生量受降雨量的影響很大,下大雨時,害虫的密度則降低。褐飛蝨從4月中旬開始發生,下旬田間水稻開始受害,因5、6月下雨其密度受影響而起伏不定。7、8月兩次暴風雨,密度降至最低,從9月上旬其密度才開始回昇,到11月上旬達最高峯。9月10月正逢水稻生育期,氣候環境又適合褐飛蝨的生存,此時之褐飛蝨大都為短翅型,且集中於稻田為害,因而受害面積最廣,到後期因稻株老化,生育環璄不佳,褐飛蝨均為長翅型而遷移,因此誘殺灯的密度大量增高。縱捲葉虫從2月下旬開始發生,但一期作受害不嚴重,又因7、8月兩次暴風雨,密度降低9、10月密度達最高,田間水稻受害也最嚴重。
4.六十六年一期水稻栽培面積約65,000公頃,主要品種有台南5號、台南6號、台農育A6號、高雄139號、台中秈1號、非洲種等。其中台南6號約佔28,266公頃(44.41%),台南5號約佔23,513公頃(36.94%)。六十六年二期水稻栽培面積約116,000公頃,主要品種有台南5號、台南6號、台農育A6號、南改育121號、高雄選1號、非洲種等。其中台南5號佔56,949公頃(48.76%),台南6號佔28,941公頃(24.79%),台農育A6佔10,367公頃(8.88%),非洲種佔4515公頃(3.87%)。
1. The major rice diseases and insect pests that occurred in Tainan District during 1977 were leaf blast, neck blast, sheath blight and brown plant-hopper in the first crop season and bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, brown plant-hopper grass leaf roller and infertile syndrome of rice in the second crop season.
2. The relationships between the occurrence of diseases and insect pests and climatic factors were:
(1) Leaf blast: The infected acreage and injury percentage in the first crop season were 1953.3 hectare and 2.5% and 431.8 hectare and 0.58% in the second crop. Owing to the less rainfall, longer daylight during February, March and April in 1977. The outbreak of leaf blast was later and less serious than that of the past years. This phenomenon may also due to growing the resistant rice variety Tainan No. 6 in some part of this area where rice blast was easily tended to occur.
(2) Neck blast: The infested acreage and injury percentage were 1764.6 ha. and 10.6% respectively in first crop and 574.4 ha. and 4.9% in the second crop. Because of the more precipitation during May and June that was just in the blooming stage of rice, therefore the injury was more serious in some parts of this district.
(3) Sheath blight: The infected acreage and injury percentage were 5327.7 ha. and 13.1% and 974.6 ha. and 9.4% in the first and the second crop season respectively. Owing to the warm climate and continuing to rain in the late growth stage in the first crop (May, June), the damage caused by this disease was serious especially in Yin-Lin and Chiayi areas where plating dates were late. In the second crop, these were less rain after October and the temperature was declined so the infection of this disease was not serious.
(4) Bacterial leaf blight: This disease did not occurred in the first crop, but was heavily occurred in the second crop in 1977 compared with that of the past years. This was due to the two times of typhoon attack on rice and the increased acreage of cultivating disease susceptible varieties such as Tainung No. 67, Tainan No. 6 and "African variety" etc.
(5) Brown plant-hopper: The infested acreage and damage were 1187.7 hectare, 1.1% and 16067 hectare, 9.5 in the first and the second crop season respectively. This insect pest is used to being more serious in the second crop than tin the first crop. But it produced high population and so caused much damage in the first crop in 1977. This was due to the fact that there were dry weather, high temperature, short precipitation and the longer daylight during the growing period of the first crop in this year. In the second crop of this year, the population of this insect was low and it caused less damage that was due to the two times typhoon attack on rice in July and August.
(6) Grass leaf roller: This was not importantly economic insect pest in rice crop, but its population seems to increase the become important in recent years. The infested acreage was 195 ha. and 6684.9 ha. in the first and the second crop, respectively.
3. The results obtained from the light trap indicated that the major insects in 1977 were brown plant-hopper, green leafhopper, grass leaf roller, rice stem borer, and zigzag leafhopper etc. The population of these insects were highly influenced by the amount of precipitation; this is the population of insects is reduced sharply following the heavy rain. Brown plant-hopper first showed up in the middle April and started to caused damage on rice in the late of April. The population of this insect was fluctuated owing to the rainfall during May and June. It reached the lowest point at the end of August due to the twice storms cause in July and August and then climbed up again from the early of September and reached the highest point at the early of November. Since it was just in the rice growing season during September and October and the climatic condition was favored for the existence of this insect, most of this insects was short-winged type and seriously infected the rice plants and caused widely and much damage. Because of the senescence of rice plant in the late growth stage and the conditions were not favored for the survival of this insect, most of the insects were the long-winged type and started to move away. It caused the population of this insect collected from the lamp trap increased rapidly. The appearance of grass leaf roller was started from the late of February but it did not caused much damage in first crop. The population of this insect was decreased in July and August due to the twice storms attack during this period and it climbed up in September and October and then caused serious injury.
4. The total acreage of rice in the first crop was about 65,000 ha. in Tainan District and the major varieties were Tainan No. 5, Tainan No. 6, Tainung No. 67, Kaohsiung No. 139, Taichung sen No. 1, Africa variety, etc. Tainan No. 6 was the widest grown variety and its acreage had 28266 ha. (44.41%) Tainan No. 5 with 23,513 ha. (36.94%) was the second. The acreage of rice in second crop was about 116,000 ha. and the major varieties grown were Tainan No. 5, Tainan No. 6, Tainung No. 67, Nan-Kai-Yi No. 121, Kaohsiung sel. No.1, Africa variety, etc. Tainan No 5 with 56949 ha. (48.76%) was the leading variety and 28941 ha. (24.79%), 10367 ha. (8.88%) and 4515 ha. (3.87%) for Tainan No. 6, Tainung No. 67 and Africa variety, respectively.




本卷期目次
臺灣省臺南區農業改良場研究彙報 12期 (1979.5)
民國66年台南地區稻作病蟲害之發生概況/ 方新政黃杉茋郭振欽李對張賜海何新奇黃榮作林義雄郭白井方德利郭聰明黃天福
落花生品種(品系)對白絹病及銹病之抗性檢定/ 方新政李根
台灣甘藷簇葉病之媒介昆蟲/ 方新政
台南區作物寄生性線蟲之研究及防治/ 賴清樂吳榮
稻殼育苗與徒長病之發生/ 黃杉茋
露地洋香瓜白粉病品種間抗性之差異/ 黃杉茋
落花生主要蟲害抗性檢定/ 顏福成歐榮東李根
小綠浮塵子Chlorita flavescens F生態及防治研究/ 顏福成
甘藷鳥羽蛾Ochyrotica concursa W生態及防治研究/ 顏福成
水稻主要害蟲棲群變動研究/ 林文助
 
   
 
   

與TAO合作 | 隱私與版權聲明 | 聯絡方式 | 下載Adobe Reader
地址:台北市中正區(100)北平東路30-12號3樓
電話:(02)2393-6968 傳真:(02)2393-6877
Email: service@wordpedia.com
Wordpedia Family: 學校、企業版入口 | 遠流影音館
Copyright©2011 Wordpedia Co., Ltd. All Rights Reserved.