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dvd臺灣農村規劃的在地美臺灣獵鹿季節
   
   
   
     
   
 
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1
題名:Historical Review of Semidwarf Rices and Breeding of a New Plant Type for Sustainable Agriculture    
水稻短稈品種歷史的回顧暨永續性農業新株型育種
著者:Chao-Hwa Hu(胡兆華)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:彰化縣
學科:農林漁牧礦科學
關鍵字:水稻 ; 短稈 ; 集約栽培 ; 病蟲害管理 ; 生態體系 ; 遺傳岐異性 ; 稉秈稻育種 ; rice ; semidwarf ; intensive culture ; pest-management ; ecosystem ; genetic diversity ; Indica-Japonica breeding
刊名:Bulletin of Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station
卷期:38期(1993.3)
頁碼:45-63
語言:英語
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

水稻栽培品種之演變,迄本世紀初葉,未受過肥料及關連病蟲害之壓力。氮肥對秈稻有增加莖葉生長量,促進成熟前倒伏,因而提升稻穀產量有困難。低腳烏尖是一孟德爾式遺傳基因(sd1)之短稈突變品種,最初記錄於台灣(1906)。在50年代本場選用作雜交親本育成台中在來1號,是對水稻改良建立一新典範,建立後來所謂「綠色革命」之高產品種時代。
低腳烏尖的短稈基因在遺傳上附帶有多面作用,除使秈稻各節間成熟時短縮稻株不倒伏,稻穗得以正常結實外,葉片亦減短直立而色濃,葉莖集結株型在加施氮肥下形成多蘗叢狀。集約栽培鼓勵多肥密植,充分利用空間增加穗數而達到提高單位面積的產量。不幸的短稈多蘗株型密植卻也是提供病蟲害菌繁殖的溫床,在東南亞大面積的推廣短稈品種地方發生稻作歷史上從未有過之大災害。
著者早年在中興大學從事水稻誘變短稈品種之遺傳研究,發現褐飛蝨對高矮稈分離植株之侵蝕有選擇性,具有低腳烏尖的半矮基因的植株多受害枯死,而高稈植株因稈分開葉色較淡,則多逃避未死(見圖一)。因而創想育出短稈開散莖品種或可以減少蟲害,維持抗倒伏豐產特性。後在美國加州得用誘變方法找到一株型與低腳烏尖有異的新半矮基因(sd6),並研究其對產量之作用,發現稻田冬作綠肥加半量氮肥便可提高25%產量。又短稈基因(sd1)通常不影響穗部性狀或改變構成產量的遺傳成分,其可貴處在獨立自由與其他孟式基因組合,產生豐產優良遺傳型品種。而日本經過半世紀上所育成較矮稉型水稻則屬微效基因累積,較難從秈稉稻交配有半不稔性後代中選出短稈與優良基因之組合。新半矮基因(sd6)亦是孟氏主效基因,具有穗大粒多可補償較少分蘗,散開株型特性可讓日光直接照射稻株基部空氣流通,理論上可以減少蟲病菌寄生繁殖,隨而減少殺蟲菌農藥之使用,避免土壤用水之污染,從農業生態觀點這是一種利用植物本身自然防禦體系的育種,一新株型育種體系於是成型(見圖三)。
現代農業的特徵是單一遺傳型品種之大面積密集多肥栽培方式,一旦發病或蟲生因無其他遺傳型品種之緩衝有潛在性危險。預防措施噴佈農藥,不但增加生產成本造成土壤惡化用水及生產品之污染,而天敵因施藥而被殺害使翌年蟲病更猖獗。抗蟲育種例如對褐飛蝨之新品種育成效果不能持久,因昆蟲有了新型之適應遺傳。因此,增加栽培品種之遺傳岐異性是首急之務。
著者為要從秈稻長粒米品種找出的新半矮型基因(sd6)轉移到稉稻內而與傳統的短稈(sd1)圓粒糯米品種雜交,發現F1結實有高達85%以上的組合,其F2稔實率分離為9 (> 70%):3 (60~69%:3 (40~59%):1 (<40%)從高稔實個體中選取各種有利性狀的組合植株,其F3系統稔實性多不再分離,種子(糙米)之大小變異連續於兩親之間,形成常態分佈與近年在浙江省餘姚河姆渡出土之稻穀之大小變異相仿(圖二)。這一事實的發現啟示栽培水稻品種,例如穀粒之長短分化秈稉稻為中裂選擇(disruptive selection),可用不具雜種不稔性之組合予以回復應有之變異。按河姆渡出土之稻穀估計已7000年之久,可代表未經人為淘汰原始稻種的遺傳變異。依此,傳統的突變基因誘發及秈稉稻雜交仍是最實用找尋水稻遺傳變異的育種方法,本場最近良質米台稉9號之育成可作佐證。又因,不同的遺傳型對環境的要求亦異,為避免株型及密植招致蟲病滋生,選出的品系分別以傳統及新栽培方法在本場內種植比較,將作進一步試驗證實台灣在工業發展下水稻新株型之育種效果及可行性。
The evolution of rice was not under the pressure of fertilization and its relationship to insects and parasites until recent years. DGWG semidwarf (sd1) is a major gene mutation which has pleiotropic effects causing dark erect leaves and compact assemly stems that respond to N application, making the plant look like a bush. High density of planting with intensive fertilization maximizes the productivity and the use of space. However, it also provides an excellent environment for insect and parasite reproduction. The occurrence of pest epidemics has resulted in a disaster for rice history.
This paper analyzes plant morphologies in relationship to high yield and presents a new semidwarf plant type (sd6) secured from an induced mutation. The reduced tillering compensated by more spikelets per panicle and the open-stemmed morphology provide better ventilation within the plant and direct sunlight to the bottom of the plant, an unfavorable environment for insect and fungus growth which is a primary concern in the agro-ecosystem. This will reduce pesticide use, water pollution and soil damage. The new plant type provides for a natural self-protection system.
Studies on increasing genetic diversity of cultivars, the sd6 semidwarf of Indica long-grain has been crossed with sd1 semidwarf of Japonica short-grain sweet rice. The F1 plants showed high fertility (85%) and the F2 seed-set segregated into a 9 (>70): 3(60-69%): 3(40-59%):1(<40%) ratio. The variation of brown rice size (L/W ratio) of F3 seeds fell into the normal distribution range between two parents. This variation was exemplified by the sample of rice seeds excavated form Homudo, China, whice is estimated to be about 7000 years old. The results suggest that the Japonica Indica cross can be traced to the original genetic diversity of the rice species, Oryza sativa L.
Selection on convientional semidwarf vs. open-stemmed semidwarf plant type with various grain size, glutinous vs. non-glutinous, different maturity, etc. were done. The high fertility F2 segregants were found bred true at advanced generations. Yielding tests on convientional and new cultural method will be carried out. The results of breeding primarily obtained are encouragement.


    

本卷期目次
Bulletin of Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station 38期 (1993.3)
台中地區農友使用有機質肥料之現況調查及意願分析/ 陳清文蔡宜峰
菜豆主要害蟲之族群消長及藥劑防治適期/ 張德前陳慶忠
盤式堆肥撒佈機性能效益研究/ 龍國維田雲生
不同用量乾豬糞對菠菜及葉萵苣生育及產量之影響/ 黃祥慶蔡宜峰
Historical Review of Semidwarf Rices and Breeding of a New Plant Type for Sustainable Agriculture/ Chao-Hwa Hu
 
   
 
   

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