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dvdDiy扣件原住民教育困境OTA
   
   
   
     
   
 
項次 書目
1
題名:長者就業:現況、挑戰與建議     (108點)
Senior Employment in Asia: Current Conditions, Challenges and Proposals
著者:陳國康(Raymond K. H. Chan)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:桃園縣
學科:社會學 ; 政治
關鍵字:長者就業 ; 積極老齡 ; 成功老齡 ; 亞洲 ; senior employment ; active ageing ; successful aging ; Asia
刊名:國家與社會
頁碼:1-54
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

在亞洲各地,社會政策對長者的關注點,多由保護及照顧開始,視長者為受照顧者,這當然是可以理解的,而相比之下,他們的經濟活動角色卻較少受到關注。然而,隨著人口老化,帶來日益增加的公眾及個人退休財務負擔,國家已不能只關注以保護為主的政策,而必須同時考慮如何減低老齡化對個人、社會和經濟的負擔,西方社會已為此紛紛作出政策改革,而防止過早退出及延長長者就業是應對問題其中一個方案。部分亞洲國家亦已、或快將面對相同問題,而採取改革措施。
本文選擇六個亞洲國家或地區--日本、韓國、臺灣、香港、新加坡及馬來西亞--作比較分析,展示近二、三十年長者就業趨勢、模式及相關政策。從統計資料顯示,這六個處於不同經濟及社會發展水平的國家或地區中,五十五至六十四歲的就業率維持穩定,六十五歲後的就業率則個別發展。若與OECD國家的就業趨勢比較,六十五歲後的就業率稍高。而長者就業亦出現向上及向下兩種情況。文章提出在文化及政策層面內均出現「推、拉」的情況:孝道及積極老齡,退休及就業政策,均有影響長者就業。
客觀上部分長者年紀愈大、勞動力質素亦無可避免會受到影響,主觀意願亦會選擇在自己認為適當的時候退出勞動力市場。但主觀上文化的轉變,客觀上個人尋求更大退休保障,社會需解決年輕勞動力減少對整體經濟及共財政做成的負擔,長者就業可以是自願的,但可能更大程度上是必需的。文章審視六個亞洲地區的現行政策,提出三個方向及有關政策供參考。
Across most countries in Asia, concern for seniors is very much on protection and care, and their continuation in economic activity has never been a major emphasis in social policy. This is understandable when they are ageing. Nevertheless, as population age, increasing retirement burden to the individual and society, as well as challenge to economic growth, bring senior employment to light in recent years. Countries in the West already adopted corresponding labour and social policies. Asian countries, facing or already encountered the same problems, also adopt reforms and strategies. Nevertheless, the progress is still slow and uneven across different countries.
This paper reviews the recent trends, patterns and relavant policies of senior employment in the past decades in six selected Asian countries or societies, which are at different levels of social and economic development. In the past decades, there was no significant increase of employment rate among those aged 55 to 64, but higher rate has been recorded among those 65 and above. Compared with the OECD countries which have experienced a steady increase in the labor force participate rate, those 65 and above in these societies is relatively higher. The senior has experienced polar opposite tracks in thier employment: upward and downward. This paper suggsted that pushing and pulling factors existed at both cultural and policy levels, which explain the development of senior emplolyment in these societies.
Objectively speaking, while the seniors are ageing and productivity declining, they will withdraw from the labour market. Subjectively speaking, they will also decide when to quit at the best time. Neverthless, we can observe the changes in the culture which impacts the expectation of seniors' work. Considering the need to provide better protection for individuals and to tackle the economic problems caused by aging population, senior employment has been a necessary option that individuals and the society cannot avoid.




本卷期目次
國家與社會
長者就業:現況、挑戰與建議/ 陳國康
紀念性與風土的對話:新北市重陽重劃區的都市地景形構/ 王志弘
從後新公共管理觀點論析我國區域治理與行政法人:一個台灣地區的實證研究/ 柯三吉衛民黃國宬李有容
高雄捷運通車前後捷運路線周邊餐飲零售業商店數目的變化/ 汪志忠王俞翔
老有所用的理念與實踐:菩提長青村個案研究/ 江大樹王子華潘中道梁鎧麟
 
   
 
   

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