原名「台灣學術線上」
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題名:貧窮的測量:發生率、強度與不均度    
Measuring Poverty in Taiwan: Incidences, Intensity and Differential Distributions
著者:王德睦(Te-Mu Wang) ;何華欽(Hua-Chin Ho) ;呂朝賢(Chao-Hsien Leu)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:社會學
關鍵字:貧窮趨勢 ; 發生率 ; 強度 ; 不均度 ; Poverty Trends ; Incidences ; Intensity ; Differential Distributions
刊名:人口學刊
卷期:30期(2005.6)
頁碼:1-28
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

傳統上對社會整體貧窮狀況的測量皆是以貧窮率為指標。然此一 指標的適當性自70 年代起已開始被學界廣泛的質疑。因為貧窮率僅能 表達社會中民衷的貧窮風險發生率,但卻無法由此指標得知,貧窮人 口到底有多窮、窮人所得分配的不均度等訊息。自Sen 以降許多研究 者開始發展適當的貧窮指標,這些指標雖然仍在發展中,亦未有唯一 受大家所公認最佳的指標存在。但多年發展之下,他們形成的共識是 一個好的貧窮指標應至少包含三種訊息:貧窮的發生率(H) 、貧窮的 強度(1)與貧窮的不均度(G) 。這些指標所指涉的意涵,正可提供福 利政策制訂所需的資訊。 本文以SST (Sen-Shorrocks-Thon) 指標來測量台灣的貧窮趨勢。 由1990 年開始至2002 年,台灣的貧窮趨勢呈現W 型曲線, 1994 年與 2000 年是W 型曲線的最低點,貧窮程度較低;而1990 年、1996 年與 2001 年是W 型曲線的最高點,貧窮程度較高,尤其以2001 年的貧窮 程度最高。SST 多元貧窮指標是由貧窮率、貧窮強度、貧窮不均度三 指標所構成,經由線性分解後,貧窮率的變化較大、貧窮強度的變化較小,而貧窮不均度取對數後的數值接近一固定常數,由此發現貧窮 率仍是一個較具影響力的指標,而貧窮不均度幾乎不影響SST 數值的 變化。
Poverty rates have been used as the indicators in measuring the over all poverty conditions in a society in the past. However, the appropriateness of using poverty rates as the indicators began to be questioned by academic circles in the 70s. This is due in part to the fact that poverty rates can only reflect the extent of the incidences of the population in entering into poverty. It fails to show the severity of poverty and the differential distribution of poverty among others. Beginning with Amartya Sen, scholars and researchers have been hard at work in developing appropriate poverty indices. However, to this day, a universally acceptable measure has yet to be developed. Over the years, however, some consensuses began to emerge. It is generally agreed by researchers that a good measure of poverty indicator should include three basic pieces of information: poverty incidences (H), intensity of poverty (1), and differential distribution of poverty (G). The dynamics and the interrelationships among these three variables can provide very useful information for developing social welfare policy in a society. SST (Sen-Shorrocks-Thon) indicators are used in this paper to measure the poverty trend in Taiwan for the period,台om 1990 to 2002. The trend shows a W shape with the years 1994 and 2000 respectively located at the lowest points on the curve, the lowest poverty levels, while the year 1990, 1996, and 2001 are on the peaks, the higher poverty levels. The year 2001 was the highest among these peaks. SST multiindicators consist of poverty rate, intensity of poverty, and differential distribution of poverty. After linear decomposition, we found the “change on rate" to be larger; while the intensity became smaller, and the inequality approximated a stable constant. Therefo間, we can say that the “poverty rate" is still the more inf1uential indicator, and the “ differential distribution of poverty" hardly affects the SST value.




本卷期目次
人口學刊 30期 (2005.6)
貧窮的測量:發生率、強度與不均度/ 王德睦何華欽呂朝賢
The Effects of Population Ageing on the Personal Income Tax Revenue in Canada: A Simulation Approach/ Wen-Fong LuWei LiEarl Bailey
「教育與職業不相稱」對薪資的影響:「標準差法」與「自我評量法」兩種不相稱測度方法之比較/ 蔡瑞明莊致嘉葉秀珍
台灣地區總生育率的分析:完成生育率與生育步調之變化/ 劉一龍王德睦
 
   
 
   

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