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1
題名:原水中有機物之性質及前加氯對混凝去除有機物之影響     (26點)
The Characteristic of Natural Organic Matter and Its Removal by Conventional Water Treatment Processes with Prechlorination
著者:賴文亮(Wen-Liang Lai) ;邱俊彥(Chun-Yen Chiu)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:屏東縣
學科:人文綜合 ; 社科綜合
刊名:大仁學報
頁碼:73-85
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

本研究選擇南部地區原水受嚴重污染之數個淨水廠,採集各淨水廠之原水、清水及主要處理單元之出水,分析其溶解性有機碳(NPDOC)、紫外光吸光?(UV254)、化學需氧量(COD)值、三鹵甲烷(THM)及鹵化醋酸(HAA)等水質參數。原水、清水中所含之溶解性有機碳則利用XAD-8樹脂,加以吸附濃縮,並區分?疏水性(Hydrophobic)及親水性(Hydrophilic)兩大類,期能瞭解原水之有機物性質及其與處理效率間之相關性。 由實驗數據顯示,五座水廠原水之有機物中親水性之有機物含量約七成,而疏水性有機物僅約三成左右;另「比UV吸光值」(SUVA?,UV254(m-1)/TOC(mg/L)),大都小於2,低於文獻上所報導自然水體SUVA?之2.6,且一般而言,人?污染物之SUVA?較低,故推測取水口在河川下游之淨水廠,其原水有受人?污染之疑。至於原水之TOC及COD,均仍在87年2月環保署所規定原水水質標準限?之下。同時發現原水之NPDOC值與UV254有良好之相關,換言之,若對某一水源如作較長期之監測,或許可從較易測定之UV254?,推測NPDOC。 由原水、清水之水質分析,顯示COD有50%左右之去除率,而NPDOC去除率甚低,故知傳統淨水程序對有機物之去除,大多以粒狀及膠體狀者?主,對於溶解性有機物之去除偏低,其原因除前述原水中所存在之溶解性有機物以親水性佔多數,不利於混凝去除外,另前加氯使部份疏水性有機物轉變?親水性者,及目前水廠混凝劑加量之決定,仍以濁度去除?主,均是可能之原因。 清水之消毒副產物濃度大多仍符合現階段之飲用水水質標準,但依目前清水消毒副產物之濃度及先進國家立法趨勢來看,仍有必要未雨綢繆,就如何降低消毒副產物之生成,預做研究以因應未來更嚴格之水質標準。
In this study several water treatment plants in southern Taiwan were selected. The water purification processes employed by these plants were mainly conventional ones, i.e. prechlorination, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The raw water, finished water, and water from major treatment units were collected. The water quality parameters including NPDOC, UV254, COD, THM, and HAA5 were analyzed. The dissolved organic contents in the raw water were further concentrated by XAD-8 resin and fractionated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. The objective of this study is to look into the relationships between characteristic operational parameters of source water and removal efficiency of dissolved organics. The results show that: although the NPDOC and COD values of all raw waters could meet water quality standards for drinking water in Taiwan nowadays, some parameters, e.g. high percent age of NPDOC contributed by hydrophilic fraction, and low SUVA (specific uv absorbance) value probably indicated the existence of anthropogenic pollutants. Nevertheless, a good correlation between DOC and UV254 was found. Comparing the quality of raw and finished water, it is found that COD removal could reach about 50%, however, NPDOC removal was minor. This indicated that organic removed by conventional treatment processes was mainly due to the removal of particulate and colloid type organics, while the removal of dissolved organics was limited. This may be explained by high percentage of hydrophilic organics in the NPDOC of source waters, the practice of prechlorination, and the face that current coagulation process of these plants still emphasized only turbidity removal. As far as disinfection by-products (DBPs) is concerned, it was found that TTHM content in the drinking water could meet the water quality standards in Taiwan. Because DBP concentration limitation of regulation will legislate critically in the future, the study on lowering the formation of DBPs is more significant.


    

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