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題名:戰後臺灣的免疫學專科化:國際援助、學術外交與邊界物    
Framing the Specialty of Immunology in Postwar Taiwan: Medical Aids, Academic Diplomacy and Boundary Objects
著者:許宏彬(Hung-bin Hsu)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:歷史
關鍵字:免疫 ; 過敏 ; 醫療援助 ; 邊界物 ; 學術外交 ; Immunology ; Allergy ; Medical Aids ; Boundary Objects ; Academic Diplomacy
刊名:臺灣史研究
卷期:21卷2期(2014.6)
頁碼:111-165
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

在今日臺灣社會,如過敏性鼻炎、氣喘及紅斑性狼瘡等難以根除的免疫相關疾病,是現代人最感到困擾的疾病類型之一,而免疫學則是我們藉以理解及面對這些嶄新疾病情境的權威資源。本文不把臺灣免疫學的發展當成現代醫學進步的自然結果,而將之視為由不同行動者在特定歷史時空中所共同促成的現象。以「見證者工作坊」(Witness Seminar)、免疫學會檔案資料及相關醫學期刊為主要文本,本文分析戰後醫療發展及分化背後的動力與機制,並藉由臺灣免疫學史來提供另一個思考戰後醫療的視角。本文提出並回答下列四個彼此關連的問題:首先,支持新專科(免疫學)出現的脈絡與資源為何?其次,新專科與既有專科(細菌學與微生物學)之間如何進行資源與議題的重新界定與劃分?再者,不同既有專科中的行動者「為何」及「如何」共同參與新專科的形構?最後,臺灣作為一個長期吸收歐美醫學知識的醫療後進國,其新興專科的發展與在地政治及學術環境之間的關係為何?本文認為,免疫學在臺灣的發展除了呼應戰後國際免疫學專科化的潮流外,也與既有的研究網絡(細菌學與微生物學)、在地的疾病情境(過敏病與鼻咽癌),以及特定時空背景下的政治環境密不可分。特別是戰後廣義的國際醫療援助及合作計畫,以及臺灣與中共自1970年代中期開始的激烈學術外交攻防,都意外地成為臺灣免疫學快速專科化的重要推手。此外,本文亦強調戰後免疫學的「自我辨識」理論及免疫檢測技術,是促使不同領域的行動者得以一起加入並共同形構臺灣免疫學專科不可或缺的邊界物。
Immunological diseases, like allergic rhinitis, asthma and autoimmune disease, are irritating modern ailments in our modern society, and immunology provides the authoritative knowledge regarding how to deal or cope with these new medical conditions. Instead of studying the history of immunology in Taiwan as a natural consequence of advancement in biomedicine, this article situates immunology, the then new medical specialty, within the specific historical context and describes the historical agents that contributed to the establishment of immunology as a specialty in Taiwan. According to the primary materials collected from Witness Seminar, medical journals, and archive from the Chinese Society of Immunology, this article analyzes the resources and mechanisms behind the development and specialization of biomedicine in post-war Taiwan. The following interrelated questions are raised and discussed. First, what were the local context and social resources that enabled the institution of a new medical specialty (immunology)? Second, how did the new specialty build up its own resources and research topics, and negotiate a new boundary with the existing specialties (like bacteriology and microbiology)? Third, how and why specific historical actors of various existing specialties could work together to construct this new specialty? Finally, what was the relationship of this new specialty with local political and academic environment in post-war Taiwan, a developing country that eagerly absorbed advanced medical knowledge and system from Euro-American countries? This article argues that, while the development of immunology in Taiwan corresponds with the general specialization and institutionalization of immunology in the global context, local research networks, disease conditions and political environment also contributed significantly to the foundation of this new specialty, especially the medical aids and the political fights between Taiwan and P.R.C. in various international scientific unions in the 1970s. Moreover, it was boundary objects like "self-recognition" and immunological measurement techniques that made it possible for actors with different disciplines and purposes to work together and establish the immunological specialty in Taiwan.


    

本卷期目次
臺灣史研究 21卷2期 (2014.6)
真實與想像的空間交錯:以臺南大天后宮的建築形制及功能為例/ 毛紹周
戰後臺灣的免疫學專科化:國際援助、學術外交與邊界物/ 許宏彬
近二十年來應用歷史地理資訊系統的回顧與展望:以臺灣區域史研究為例/ 李宗信顧雅文
評介吳蕙芳著《基隆中元祭:史實、記憶與傳說》/ 鄭螢
生豬貿易的形成:十九世紀末期臺灣北部商品經濟的發展(1881-1900)/ 曾品滄
認識與想像臺灣的社會經濟史:1920-1930年代臺灣社會史論爭意義之重探/ 林文凱
 
   
 
   

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