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題名:林學、資本主義與邊區統治:日治時期林野調查與整理事業的再思考    
Modern Forestry, Capitalism and the Governance of Frontier: Some Reconsideration of the Investigation and Arrangement of Rinya in Taiwan during the Japanese Colonial Period
著者:洪廣冀(Goang-Jih Horng)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:歷史
關鍵字:林野 ; 林野整理 ; 資本主義化 ; 近代林業 ; 環境史 ; rinya ; arrangement of forest and wild land ; modern forestry ; shihonshugika ; environmental history
刊名:臺灣史研究
卷期:11卷2期(2004.12)
頁碼:77-144
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

本文以日治時期臺灣的林野調查與整理事業為中心,一方面透過史料的交叉檢證,探討矢內原忠雄以降、研究者對該事業在臺灣資本主義化中的定位是否恰當;另方面,本文亦帶入殖民政府觀看臺灣林野的方式、不同制度在連結後的非意圖後果以及林野本身的異質性,在整體的尺度下探討日治初中期林野事業的性質。 日治初期,殖民政府透過制度將林野區分為林地與林產等客體以界定利益關係者的權利內涵;然在面對臺灣既有的林野舊慣時卻不時面臨舊慣與新規間難能接續的問題,直至林野調查才以保管林等緣故關係地的設置初步解決。與之對照,在政府理蕃與荒地開發等考量下進駐官有林野的資本家,其運作雖是以林地為主的拓殖經營,但透過林產價值方得以成立的「遺利」,毋寧是促成資本與政府結盟的重要誘因,一九二○年代在官有林野整理事業展開後,殖民政府將林野調查查定的官有林野區分為要存置與不要存置林野,同時將地緣人民與其佔有的緣故關係地清理出來,透過授產、知識灌輸與法令強制,政府嘗試將之改造為鑲嵌於國有林中、可自行維生又無礙於山林保育的林業家,同時?益因一次大戰而勃興的林產事業。然而,被安置於不要存置林野內、未及整理的資本家,趁著局勢改變與既往拓殖經營之便,其作業竟造成當時保育意識下的濫伐。對此,殖民政府一方面集中國有林野的經營權,另方面重新界定與資本家的關係以誰動林野經營的集約;不料前述政府主導的經營模式卻在殖民母國與國際局勢的夾擠中,讓林野的遺利甚有浪費或「貨棄於地」的危機。在此脈絡下,一套源自歐陸的知識體系─近代林業─終被援用,森林計畫事業即試圖以此套體系革新既存的經營體制且緩解林野事業的現實困境。就日治初中期的林野研究史而言,本文在一定程度上修正了隱含其中的演化史觀與拿理論硬套歷史的疏失,同時也為臺灣資本主義化的研究傳統與南亞環境史的對話提供可能空間。
This paper takes the investigation and arrangement of rinya (forests and wild land) as its focus, accompanied with the triangulation of historical materials to discuss if the interpretations of such investigation and arrangement of rinya in Taiwan's shihonshugika (the transition to capitalism) by researchers from Tadao Yanaihara downward are appropriate. In addition, this paper also introduces the colonial administration's view toward forests, the unintended consequences generated after the connection of different institutions, and the heterogeneities of forest resources to explain in a holistic scale how the rinya was incorporated into colonial control, allocated to different stakeholders, and then reached "shihonshugika". At the beginning of Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan, the colonial administration divided the rinya into forest lands and forest products through institutions so as to identify the contents of stakeholders' rights. While confronting the existing customary practices of foresty in Taiwan's society, there were problems of articulating the customary practices and new regulations that frequently occurred. The primary resolution did not come out until the establishment of engokanke-rinya (occupation relationships) after the investigation of rinya. As a comparison, although the capitalists that resided in the government-owned rinya under the consideration of the domestication of the indigenous people and wastelands development deployed takushokukeiei (management by colonizing and reclaiming) mainly to the forest lands, the revenue that eminated from the forest products was the important incentive of accelerating the alliance of capitalists and government. After undertaking the arrangement of government-owned rinya in the 1920s, the colonial administration divided the government-owned rinya into preserved and non-preserved areas, while at the same time sorting out the forest people and their engokanke-rinya. Through property devolving, knowledge inculcation and law enforcement, the colonial administration tried to convert these people who resided around the government-owned rinya into forest managers who could live on their own and be no harm to forest protection. Benefits to forest products and lumber industries came about due to World War Ⅰ. However, those capitalists located in the non-preserved rinya and who were unable to arrange in time took liberty of the war and the convenience of colonizing and reclaiming the forest lands to undertake operations that resulted in serious deforestation, which did not comply with the conservation ideas prescribed in forest law. Thus, the colonial administration not only concentrated on the authority of the national forests, but also integrated the strengths of capitalists to manage the national forests efficiently. This government-led model was unexpectedly squeezed between Japan and an international situation turned the profits of rinya into a concern over waste. Consequently, a knowledge system package originating from the European continent's scientific forestry was appropriated. The colonial administration tried to reform the existing systems of forest management and solve the practical problems in the 1930s. As to the research history of rinya which has focused on the primary and mid-term of Japanese colonial rule, this paper adjusts the errors implicated in evolutionist explanations and the unsuitability of the application of theory into history on some level, while at the same time providing possible spaces for dialogue between the research traditions of Taiwan's shihonshugika and the environmental history of South Asia.


    

本卷期目次
臺灣史研究 11卷2期 (2004.12)
日治時期臺灣人的海外活動─在「滿洲」的臺灣醫生/ 許雪姬
尋找歷史的軌跡:臺灣新、舊文學的承接與過渡(1895-1924)/ 黃美娥
日治時期臺灣瘧疾防遏政策─「對人法」?「對蚊法」?/ 顧雅文
土地行政與契約文書─臺灣總督府檔案抄存契約文書解題/ 李文良
林學、資本主義與邊區統治:日治時期林野調查與整理事業的再思考/ 洪廣冀
 
   
 
   

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