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1
題名:台北關渡溼地昆蟲多樣性之研究    
Survey on Biodiversity of Hexapod in Gandau Estuary, Taipei City
著者:馬堪津(Can-Jen William Maa) ;趙秉儀(Ping-Yi Janet Chao)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:地球科學
關鍵字:昆蟲生物多樣性 ; 關渡溼地 ; 監測和管理 ; Insect-biodiversity ; Gandau-estuary ; monitoring and management
刊名:台灣海洋學刊
卷期:39卷2期(2001.12)
頁碼:175-198
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

本研究是1998年9月到2000年7月,在基隆河及淡水河交會處的關渡自然公園及自然保留區進行昆蟲多樣性監測調查的結果。此公園及保留區佔地各有57及55公頃,公園多屬草澤,保留區中多屬水筆仔紅樹林兼具蘆葦之溼地。從1998年9月到1999年3月完成全園捕撈水生昆蟲、漏斗收集土壤昆蟲及網捕其他在當地活動之陸域昆蟲的普查;從1999年4月到2000年7月則是以紫外光燈及黃色黏蟲紙定點逐月在公園及保留區誘集昆蟲,以建立昆蟲相的監測系統。共採得21目148科550種昆蟲,及超過55種的其他節肢動物。雙翅目昆蟲在濕地為多數種,而草澤區則多屬雙翅目和膜翅目昆蟲。雙翅、膜翅、鞘翅、鱗翅、同翅目等全年皆可捕得,其他的昆蟲只有在特定的月份才可捕到。每燈每夜最多可誘集到46種昆蟲。雙翅目大發生時每燈可捕獲上萬隻。保留區中共誘集18目250種昆蟲,林中植物相雖單調,但昆蟲的多樣性卻遠高於亞洲其他地區者。 春季蟲種最多,夏季蟲數最多,秋冬則少。雙翅目昆蟲如搖蚊、蛾蚋、蠓、濱邊蠅及水渚蠅四月間出,在泥溼地孳生。鱗翅目以夜蛾、螟蛾、燈蛾為主要蟲種。直翅目、同翅目及半翅目昆蟲數目亦不少。 在燈誘所得之92種昆蟲中,有6種為常年可見,可以用來監測關渡溼地生態系逐年變化的指標昆蟲:以葉片為食的褐鋸尺蛾(Cleora repulsaria)可以評估紅樹林的生產量、以枯木為食的黃緣苔蛾(Eilema antica)可評估枯木蓄量,間接監測星天牛對水筆仔的危害,在2000年時數量較多,這表示水筆仔受害蟲危害的情形比以前更嚴重。還有以植物碎屑為食的小黑隱翅蟲(Staphylinid species)為陸域化指標昆蟲,在2000年時數量亦大增,公園中尤甚,這表示園區有陸域化傾向。搖蚊(Chironomids species)與蛾蚋(Psychodids species)各為中港河及基隆河水域之污染指標,今年大量出現,表示污染比以前沒有顯著改善。公園中卻減量,是污染改善,抑是陸域化的結果?庫蠓(Culicoides species)吸食陸域小動物血液以繁殖後代,是另一種指標昆蟲,2000年所誘得庫蠓的數量較少。膜翅目以中、小型寄生蜂為主,大型捕食性胡蜂種少。蟻類、蟻塚蟲及小黑隱翅蟲則相伴發生且數量日增。渠道或池中的捕食性水生昆蟲,如松藻蟲、龍蝨、牙蟲、水蠆及花蚤逐年減少,再加上桑天牛的出現及金龜子之量增,顯示關渡公園溼地陸域化的趨勢。 第一年的昆蟲多樣性普查得450種蟲,第二年的定點誘集調查時有156種列入逐月登記。第三年取92種利用多變值群眾分析統計軟體(PRIMER V5)進行昆蟲棲群變化及與其他生物間之相關性分析。結果顯示:其數量在春、夏季時多於秋、冬季。草澤公園區的昆蟲相和水筆仔溼地者不同。昆蟲群聚之季節變化大於空間變化,且昆蟲群聚與植物群落和哺乳動物間有顯著相關。更由六種指標昆蟲調查結果顯示:關渡溼地生態系在三年的演替中有三個問題表面化,應予以特別注意:河口還有污染;濕地已然陸化;水筆仔與星天牛在泥灘地有生態上的競爭與消長。
The mangrove forests of Kandelia candel and the swamp along Tan-shui estuary connect with river and sea. It is a detritus-based ecosystem and a propagative and reproductive habitat for aquatic organisms. The mangrove forest marshland and the swamp at Gandau of Taipei City covered 40 and 57 hectares respectively. Surveying and monitoring on insect biodiversity was proceeded at Gandau for sustaining management. Primarily survey on aquatic insects, soil insects, phytophagous and predacious insect, and detritus feeder was carried out throughout the estuary during September 1998 to March 1999. Light trap and sticky-paper trap set in eight different locations were used one night per month for biodiversity survey from April 1999 to September 2000. There had 550 species of 120 families, 21 orders of insect been captured in swamp, and 250 species of 19 orders of insect in marsh. More than 50 species of other arthropods were found in swamp alone. Most of the insect species were caught in spring, and most of individuals of the insect were caught in summer. Among them 92 species were often caught and were counted for study of insect biodiversity based on cluster analysis. We found that the insect fauna of marsh and swamp varied temporarily and spatially according to the season, and these two faunas were different from one another. Diptera and Hymenoptera a re the major insects in swamp, and Diptera is the major order in marsh. Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Homoptera are major orders those can be caught all the year around. Others can be caught just in a given date of the year. Nevertheless, wasps in forest, beetles under water, moths in swamp, hoppers on grass, and springtails in soil can not be caught by light trap, although these insects are important species in aspect of food chain of the community. Population of insect coincidentally and correlatively fluctuated with that of plant and vertebrate of the wetland. Six groups of insect which are abundant all the time were chosen as indicator organisms to monitor the temporary and sporadic change of the insect population in ecosystem of Gandau estuary. Cleora repulsaria, a Leaf-eater (Geometridae: Lepidoptera); Eilema antica, a detritus-eater (Agaristidae: Lepidoptera); Staphylinus species, a rove beetle (Staphylinidae: Coleoptera) increased in number last year. It indicated that the forest expanded, but trees were destroyed concomitantly by insect pests. The stem borers in mangrove are white spotted longhorn beetle, Anoplophora maculata Thomson and leopard moth, Zeuzera coffeae Nietner. They destroyed the tree by ending up with an open ground of 600 square meters in mangrove forest of Gandau at 1998. Chironomids species, red worms (Chironomidae: Diptera); Psychodids species, a moth fly (Psychodidae: Diptera) were all increased in number by year 2000 indicating that the swamp was either polluted ever since or the populations of these insects increased during a warm weather of year 2000. Population of Culicoidini; biting midges (Culicoididae: Coleoptera) were abundant in 1999 and less abundant in 2000. It indicated that birds preferred to stay outside of the marsh. More species of terrestrial insect was found then. These might signify that the wetland is draining off. Results of monitoring work on insect biodiversity revealed that three potential problems we found in the estuary: ruin of the mangrove forest, draining up of the marsh, and pollution of the estuary. These informations were used to justify the program on sustaining management of the Gandau estuary.


    

本卷期目次
台灣海洋學刊 39卷2期 (2001.12)
大漢溪流域水體環境中重金屬及營養鹽分布的探討/ 孫毓璋彭竟凱
由底棲群聚看淡水河河口生態品質/ 謝蕙蓮
淡水河口區水下地形/ 宋國士溫良碩劉康克劉佩琨
淡水河流域及河口生態與環境研討會--報告及建議/ 李遠輝劉康克邵廣昭
基隆河水污染防治-設計與工程問題探討/ 駱尚廉
台北關渡溼地昆蟲多樣性之研究/ 馬堪津趙秉儀
生命觀的河川整治:生物指標的應用與推廣/ 陳章波
三十年來沿岸海域環境品質研究之回顧/ 洪楚璋
淡水河在颱風期間懸浮顆粒物質之碳氮含量、同位素組成及輸出通量/ 陳冠倫高樹基劉康克
淡水河流域防洪計畫/ 黃金山
Dissolved aluminum in the Tanshui estuary and inshore seawater/ Tien-Hsi Fang
 
   
 
   

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