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1
題名:《哈姆雷》的戲曲變相    
Transfigurations: Hamlet in Chinese Opera
著者:陳芳(Fang Chen)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:藝術
關鍵字:跨文化改編 ; 哈姆雷 ; 王子復仇記 ; 戲曲 ; 莎士比亞 ; cross-cultural adaptation ; Hamlet ; The Prince's Revenge ; Chinese opera ; Shakespeare
刊名:戲劇研究
卷期:3期(2009.1)
頁碼:147-191
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

自1600年演出以來,Hamlet一直廣受世人的歡迎,也是莎劇作品中最早被改編成戲曲樣式者,時約1916年。而在當代戲曲的跨文化演繹中,從Hamlet改編的三部《王子復仇記》(當代傳奇劇場、上海越劇院、上海京劇院),緣於編、導、演、製等主創團隊的理念不同,或?了兼顧劇種特性、演員特質、演出時間……等各層面,以致於調整原著的結構與人物,甚至大幅改寫原著。這些見仁見智的增刪結果,使Hamlet戲曲版呈現出迥異於原著的「變相」,在形式與意涵上有了「另一種演示」。 「當代版」看似京劇,卻有「創一新劇種」的自我期許,完全顛覆Hamlet的文義格局。劇中王子並不存在Hamlet所面臨的種種現實或心理層面的矛盾困境,他的心思較單純,反應也較直接,從頭到尾性格始終如一,是中國傳統倫理道德、三綱五常所塑造出來「制式化的正統王子」。「上越版」以尹(桂芳)派「男」小生挑梁,偏重越劇擅長的才子佳人模式。演員之陰盛陽衰、唱腔之擅於抒情,造就了不一樣的《王子復仇記》。該劇刪減了王子自我剖析的戲分,轉移了王子思考的焦點問題,卻增加了浪漫抒情的成分,Hamlet就此變形成一個文質彬彬、儒雅深情的「溫柔王子」。「上京版」的王子則充分發揮文武老生的專長,「表演性」相當強烈。全劇較重視渲染氣氛,而非敘述劇情,故情節係以「片段摘取原著」的方式推展的。?了具體說明其間的差異,茲以原著與改編的結構、人物及關鍵的「戲中戲」,作?對照切入論述的視角。本文對於Hamlet在戲曲版中的解構與重構、人物的改頭換面、「戲中戲」的本義與衍義等,都有詳盡的析論。 雖然三部戲曲版相較於原著,嚴格說來都不算是「精準對位」的改編,但就其劇種或劇團之發展言,其實均自有重要的意義與影響;而這也正是跨文化改編值得正視的價值。
Hamlet is one of Shakespeare's most popular plays. In the four hundred years since it was performed in about 1600, there were numerous adaptations by others. The first adaption of Hamlet into Chinese opera, in 1916, was entitled The Prince's Revenge. From then on, there have been various versions of The Prince's Revenge giving a Chinese interpretation of this story, presented by companies such as Contemporary Legend Theater, Shanghai Yueju Opera Theatre and Shanghai Peking Opera Theatre. These theaters made a lot of changes to the original for different reasons-the screenwriter's creative idea, the characteristic of the theater, the actor's traits, the performance time, etc. Hamlet acted in the style of Chinese opera has presented many transfigurations and become "another kind of performance" both in style and meaning. The Prince's Revenge played by Contemporary Legend Theater not only overturned the original play but also created an innovative type of drama. The prince did not experience the practical or psychological conflicts that Hamlet had to face. The former was simple and straightforward, an invariable character who reflected the restricted traditional model of a Chinese prince. The version played by Shanghai Yueju Opera Theatre featured Yin Guifang, a famous male xiao sheng. The portrait of Hamlet's psychology disappeared, adding a sentimental mood characteristic of Yueju Opera. Hamlet's dilemma was diverted to a romantic love story, turning him into a gentle, cultured and affectionate prince, and eliminating the self-analytical, introspective elements. The version played by Shanghai Peking Opera Theatre brought all the techniques of wu sheng and lao sheng into full play and highlighted the embellishment of a dramatic mood at the expense of narrative. The story was told with several extracts from the original. Its way of performance made it look like a "show" rather than a play. This article compares the essential differences in structures, characters and the crucial arrangement of "story within a story" between the original and the adaptations. It elaborates on the deconstruction and reconstruction of Hamlet in Chinese opera, the hash of characters in a new form and the original and derivative functions of "story within a story". Three versions of the adaptations were not exactly the same as the original. However, they played an important role in the development and innovation of Chinese operas and theaters. The Revenge of the Prince accentuated the value of cross-cultural adaptation.


    

本卷期目次
戲劇研究 3期 (2009.1)
體系與視野:五十年來(1949-2002)臺灣學者對傳統戲曲學的建構/ 林鶴宜
《傳奇彙考》及其相關戲曲考釋書目-從《傳奇彙考》到《曲海總目提要》及《曲海總目提要補編》/ 江巨榮浦部依子
《哈姆雷》的戲曲變相/ 陳芳
重探一九五○年代反共戲劇:後世評價與時人之論述/ 紀蔚然
不只是表演:明星過程、性別越界與身體表演-從張國榮談起/ 周慧玲
論說戲曲雅俗之推移(下)-從清乾隆末至清末/ 曾永義
失序之抗衡-王九思曲作中的兩種歸隱/ 陳?沅
從隱藏的秩序論述崑劇〈下山〉〈掃秦〉/ 李惠綿
 
   
 
   

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