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1
題名:酪梨貯藏期間褐變及其抑制之研究     (30點)
Study on Avocado Browning and its Prevention During Storage
著者:陳佳婷(C. T. Chen) ;吳昆崙(K. L. Wu) ;曾國書(K. S. Tseng)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台南市
學科:人文綜合 ; 社科綜合
關鍵字:酪梨 ; 貯藏 ; 褐變 ; 抑制 ; 感官品評 ; Avocado ; storage ; browning ; inhibition ; sensory evaluation
刊名:台南應用科大學報
卷期:31期(2012.10)
頁碼:45-59
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

以嘉義選三號及竹崎青皮種酪梨為原料,探討酪梨在貯藏過程中褐變之原因及抑制褐變的方法。將酪梨貯藏於0℃、5℃、10℃及25℃等4種溫度,觀察其在不同溫度之貯藏耐性(以褐變程度表示),接著以100℃,1~10分鐘的處理決定適當的殺菁條件並測量酚類物質的含量與褐變相關酵素之活性。實驗同時研究預冷、添加物保護處理、冷藏與冷凍貯存等因子對酪梨褐變之抑制效果。 結果發現溫度為貯藏期間酪梨褐變的主要影響因子,常溫25℃酪梨可貯存7~10日,10℃時可貯15~25日,5℃時兩品種酪梨均耐貯藏達30日,0℃時為40~45日,酪梨之顏色,會隨著貯藏期間增加而漸呈暗色,褐變原因為多酚物質與過氧化酵素、多酚氧化酵素及接觸酵素等作用。未熟成酪梨適合的殺菁條件為100℃、10min,而熟成之酪梨則以100℃殺菁2 min。竹崎青皮種的酚類物質含量(13.1mg/100g)遠大於嘉選三號(5.6mg/100g);竹崎青皮種的PPO(多酚過氧化酵素)活性顯著大於嘉選三號的PPO,其他酵素活性兩種酪梨沒有顯著差異。 未熟成酪梨果肉不耐冷藏,熟成且未褐變劣化之良質果在無氧氣或真空條件下甚耐凍藏。凍藏時,不論是否經殺菁或保護處理,在-20℃之凍藏期間均維持7個月以上不褐變,而經保護處理者,凍藏期限可延長至8~10個月,感官品評之色、香、味乃佳。
Two cultivars of avocado (Chaiyi No 3 and Jwu-Jii Green) were used to study the causes of browning and methods for browning inhibitions. Avocados were stored at 0, 5, 10, and 25℃ to observe storage endurance (browning degree) at different temperatures and, to determine the optimum blenching conditions at 100℃, 1~10 min and measure the contents of phenolic materials as well as activities of browning related enzymes. Experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of pre-cooling, protective treatments of additives, cold and frozen storage on avocado browning. Results showed that temperature was the main factor for browning during storage, avocado can be stored for 7~11 days at 25℃, 15~25 days at 10℃, 30 days at 5℃ and 40~45 days at 0℃. As the time of storage increasing, the color of avocado turned dark gradually, which resulted from the reaction of polyphenols with peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (ppo) and catalase. Suitable blenching conditions for un-ripened avocados was 10 min at 100℃, whereas for ripened avocados, 2 min blenching is satisfactory at 100℃. The contents of phenolic materials in Jwu-Jii green is higher than that of Chai-Yi no 3; for the enzyme activity, the activity of ppo in Jwu-Jii is greater than that of Chai-Yi no 3 significantly. But, for the other two enzymes, there is no significant difference between them. Research also found that, immature avocado mesocarp is not suitable for cold storage. Mature avocado mesocarps without browning can keep a good quality during frozen storage under vacuum conditions. And also, whether blenching or protective treatment or not, browning can be inhibited for at least 7 months under -20℃ storage. On the other hand, if protective treatments (with some acids) were applied, frozen storage can be extended to 8~10 months, showing a good quality for sensory evaluation in terms of color and flavor.


    

本卷期目次
台南應用科大學報 31期 (2012.10)
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