原名「台灣學術線上」
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題名:民國74-79年各種職災累積死亡率與潛在生命年數損失之分析     (26點)
DEATH DUE TO OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AND COST TO SOCIETY: AN ANALYSIS OF CUMULATIVE MORTALITY RATES AND YEARS OF POTENTIAL LIFE LOSS
著者:劉益宏(Yi-Hung Liu) ;王榮德(Jung-Der Wang)
出版地區:台灣
出版城市:台北市
學科:醫學綜合
關鍵字:Cumulative mortality rates ; occupational accidents ; Year of potential life loss
刊名:中華民國公共衛生學會雜誌
卷期:11卷2期(1992.6)
頁碼:89-101
語言:繁體中文
摘要: 中文摘要PDF ; 英文摘要PDF

我國職業意外災害發生率,在過去數年一直為日本及新加波的5-10倍;由於職災死亡之勞工,每年在一千五百人以上。本文利用民國74年1月至80年4月間9457名職災死亡請領死亡給付勞工之各項資料,嘗試探討職災死亡之各項死亡率及其變因,與潛在生命年數損失(YPLL)等。歷年職災死亡勞工平均年齡為39.1±12.6歲,男性勞工平均年齡比女性高(40.8 vs 38.6 p<0.0001);各業別間,以礦業勞工平均死亡年齡最高(48.5±8.9),商業最低(34.5±12.3)。最常見的五項死因依次為交通意外事故(48%),溺斃(8.1%),墜落滾落(7.6%),跌倒(4.2%)及感電(3.8%)。職災死亡潛在生命年數損失,每年高達6萬6千人年,而潛在工作年數損失,每年達4萬4千人年。以79年各業別勞工年平均薪資來計算該年損失之薪資額,約達130億元。職災標準化千人死亡率雖有逐年下降趨勢,但數年來均在0.3左右,且以50-60歲勞工職災死亡率最高。男性勞工職災死亡之各項指標,均為女性之6至8倍。勞工15-65歲累積死亡率,男性為0.025,女性為0.0004。從事礦業,農林漁牧業及營造業之男性勞工累積死亡率最高(五年平均為:0.115,0.076及0.035);從事水電燃煤業,礦業及製造業之女性勞工危險性亦高(分別為0.011,0.009及0.006)。由於職災之高死亡率,且歷年來不見明顯改善,更見職業傷害管制之迫切性。
The mortality rates of occupational accidents in Taiwan were usually 5-10 times those of Singapore and Japan during the past five years. The objective of this study was to explore the determinants of occupational fatalities and the loss of society incurred by these incidents. We collected and analyzed all mortality records (n=9457) of occupational accidents during January 1985-April 1991 from the Labor Insurance Bureau of Taiwan. The result showed that the average age of victims was 39.1±12.6. The average age of male workers was higher than that of female workers (40.8 vs 38.6 P<0.001). Among different industrial divisions, the average age of mining and quarrying workers was the highest (48.5±8.9), while that of commercial workers was the lowest (34.5±12.3). The five leading causes of occupational fatalities were traffic accident, drowning, falling from height, stumbling, and electrical shock, each consisting of 48.0%, 8.1%, 7.6%, 4.2%, and 3.8% of all occupational fatalities. Annually, the years of potential life loss (YPLL) incurred by occupational fatalities were near 66, 000 person-years, and the working years of potential life loss (WYPLL) were as high as 44,000 person-years. The estimated total amount of salary loss was about 13 billion New Taiwan Dollars in 1990. The risk of occupational fatalities of male workers was 6-8 times higher than that of female workers. The lifetime (1565 years) cumulative mortality rates of male and female workers were 0.025 and 0.0004 respectively. The three most dangerous industrial divisions of male workers were mining and quarrying, farming and fishing, and construction industries, because their average cumulative mortality rates were 0.115, 0.076 and 0.035 respectively. Those of female workers were utility services, mining and quarrying, and manufacturing industries, because their lifetime cumulative mortality rates were 0.011, 0.009 and 0.006 respectively. During the last 6 years, the death rates of occupational accidents in Taiwan have shown a mild decline. However, the overall figure of mortality rates due to occupational accidents is still high if compared with more industrialized countries and need more effort to reduce it.


    

本卷期目次
中華民國公共衛生學會雜誌 11卷2期 (1992.6)
營養師人力特性之分析/ 章樂綺
某專科學校學生對B型肝炎之知識、態度與預防性健康行為之研究/ 郭憲文袁素娟郭憲華王理
台灣南部地區某山地?C型肝炎病毒血清流行病學研究/ 黃凱琳游山林王秋華朱健次楊照雄陳建仁
口服中藥成藥對血清腎上腺皮質醇濃度的抑制效應/ 陳育堂王榮德張智仁
1979及1989兩年台灣地區十大死因之潛在生命損失與累積死亡率之比較/ 林茂榮陳美滿王榮德
衛生所報表簡化過程之探討/ 季瑋珠李世代簡大任符春花
某釉藥工廠鉛暴露源之偵測診斷/ 詹長權黃勝凱莊弘毅王榮德
民國74-79年各種職災累積死亡率與潛在生命年數損失之分析/ 劉益宏王榮德
 
   
 
   

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